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Did stone weapons lead to the birth of DEMOCRACY? 'Ancient Greek' political system may have emerged more than a MILLION years ago



•           Researchers say weapons gave more power to individuals in social groups
•           This forced leaders to be more persuasive and allowed groups to debate
•           They believe it appeared with species like Homo erectus 1.9m years ago
•           The scientists argue democracy played a key role in our own evolution
By Richard Gray for MailOnline


It is seen as a defining feature of civilisation that emerged relatively recently from the intellectual crucible of ancient Greece.
New research, however, suggests the roots of democracy can be traced back more than a million years and that it played a key role in the evolution of our species.
In a new scientific paper, a group of anthropologists suggest human political systems began evolving as soon as our primate ancestors began living in groups.
They argue weapons undermined the social hierarchy that tends to exist in primate societies as they forced leaders to use the tools of persuasion and debate to convince others to follow them.


HOMO ERECTUS COULD THROW
Early human ancestors may have evolved to throw spears allowing them to hunt around two million years ago, a new study has suggested.
Research by Dr Neil Roach has shown that the that the skeletons of Homo erectus had shoulders and collar bones that would have allowed them to hurl sticks accurately and powerfully.
This would have enabled Homo erectus to become a proficient hunter, able to throw weapons like spears and rocks at potential prey.
The oldest human footprints left behind on a muddy lakeside 1.5 million years ago also suggest Homo erectus hunted in packs.
Researchers examining the site where a series of tracks left by a barefooted early human in Ileret, northwest Kenya, have now found a total of 99 prints.
They now believe that they belong to groups who all passed over the soft mud at the same time - perhaps even stalking some of the other animals whose prints are also preserved in the mud.
It provides some of the strongest evidence yet that the human ancestors that left the prints - Homo erectus - were sophisticated hunters.
This is because weapons gave weaker members of a group the ability to inflict lethal harm on more dominant individuals.
Writing in the journal Current Anthropology, Herbert Gintis, an external professor of economics and behavioural science the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico, and his colleagues said: 'The combination of social interdependence and the availability of such weapons in early hominin society undermined the standard social dominance hierarchy of multimale or multifemale primate groups.
'The successful sociopolitical structure that ultimately replaced the ancestral social dominance hierarchy was an egalitarian political system in which lethal weapons made possible group control of leaders, and group success depended on the ability of leaders to persuade and of followers to contribute to a consensual decision process.
'The heightened social value of nonauthoritarian leadership entailed enhanced biological fitness for such leadership traits as linguistic facility, ability to form and influence coalitions, and, indeed, hypercognition in general.'
Their conclusions have important implications for the development of politics in human society.
It was thought that complex political systems such as democracy were a relatively recent innovation that occurred only in the last few thousand years as humans began settling in large towns and cities.
Democracy is widely assumed to have been born in ancient Greece due to the political systems that emerged in the Greek city states in the 5th century BC.
However, Professor Gintis, together with Professor Christopher Boehm, an anthropologist at the University of Southern California and Professor Carel van Shaik, an anthropologist at the University of Zurch, examined the the latest evidence from studies in primates, anthropology and archaeology.
They found that while most primate societies employ a hierarchical political system where a dominant female or male makes decisions for the group, this changes in human societies.
In primitive hunter gatherer societies, the existence of weapons leads to a far more egalitarian structure.
The researchers say that the availability of lethal weapons in early hominin society could have helped to stabilise relationships in groups that were reliant upon sharing of collective duties.
They said: 'Thus, two successful sociopolitical structures arose to enhance the flexibility and efficiency of social cooperation in humans and likely their hominin ancestors.


THE COMPLEX EVOLUTION OF MAN 
55 million years ago - First primitive primates evolve
15 million years ago - Hominidae (great apes) evolve from the ancestors of the gibbon
8 million years ago - First gorillas evolve. Later, chimp and human lineages diverge
5.5 million years ago - Ardipithecus, early 'proto-human' shares traits with chimps and gorillas
4 million years ago - Australopithecines appeared. They had brains no larger than a chimpanzee's
2.8 million years ago - LD 350-1 appeared and may be the first of the Homo family
2.7 million years ago - Paranthropus, lived in woods and had massive jaws for chewing
2.3 million years ago - Homo habalis first thought to have appeared in Africa
1.8 million years ago - Homo ergaster begins to appear in fossil record
1.6 million years ago - Hand axes become the first major technological innovation
800,000 years ago - Early humans control fire and create hearths. Brain size increases rapidly
400,000 years ago - Neanderthals first begin to appear and spread across Europe and Asia
200,000 years ago - Homo sapiens - modern humans - appear in Africa
40,000 years ago - Modern humans reach Europe
'The first was the reverse dominance hierarchy, which required a brain large enough to enable a band's rank and file to create effective coalitions that could definitively put an end to alpha male hegemony and replace this with a lasting egalitarian order.
'Leaders were kept weak, and their reproductive success depended on an ability to persuade and motivate, coupled with the rank-and-file ability to reach a consensus with such leadership.
'The second was cooperative childrearing and hunting, which provided a strong psychological predisposition toward prosociality and favored internalized norms of fairness.'
The first stone tools are thought to have emerged around 3.3 million years ago, long before the emergence of the Homo genus, of which we are the sole surviving species.
Many anthropologists believed sharpened sticks may also have been used as weapons before this, which could mean this very 'human' political system predates some of our earliest ancestors.
However, the researchers behind the new paper argue that it was probably not until Homo erectus, which evolved around 1.9 million years ago, that our ancestors began hunting large prey.
This, they suggest could be when the first truly egalitarian political systems began to emerge.
They argue that it was not until the later Holocene about 12,000 years ago, where cultural changes, perhaps driven by innovations like farming, fostered the accumulation of material wealth and social hierarchies began to emerge again.
The researchers say it is likely that early democratic societies played an important role in the evolution of social groups in humans that led to them becoming the dominant species on the planet.
They said: 'This scenario has important implications for political theory and social policy because it suggests that humans are predisposed to seek individual dominance when this is not excessively costly and also to form coalitions to depose pretenders to power.
'Moreover, humans are much more capable of forming large, powerful, and sustainable coalitions than other primates because of our enhanced cooperative psychological propensities.

'Such coalitions also served to reinforce the moral order as well as to promote cooperation in hunting, warding off predators, and raiding other human bands.' 

Zombie Burials? Ancient Greeks Used Rocks to Keep Bodies in Graves


by Laura Geggel, Staff Writer  

Ancient supernatural practices may explain why two Grecian graves contain skeletons that are pinned down with heavy objects and rocks, almost as though people wanted to trap the bodies underground, a new article finds.
Archaeologists have known about these two peculiar burials since the 1980s, when they uncovered the graves along with nearly 3,000 others at an ancient Greek necropolis in Sicily. But a new analysis suggests the two graves contained so-called "revenants," dead bodies thought to have the ability to reanimate, leave their graves and harm the living — essentially an ancient version of zombies.
The ancient Greeks believed that, "to prevent them from departing their graves, revenants must be sufficiently 'killed,' which [was] usually achieved by incineration or dismemberment," Carrie Sulosky Weaver wrote in the article, published June 11 in the online magazine Popular Archaeology. "Alternatively, revenants could be trapped in their graves by being tied, staked, flipped onto their stomachs, buried exceptionally deep or pinned with rocks or other heavy objects." 
Sulosky Weaver, a postdoctoral fellow in the department of the history of art and architecture at the University of Pittsburgh, studied the necropolis for part of her forthcoming book, "The Bioarchaeology of Classical Kamarina: Life and Death in Greek Sicily" (University Press of Florida, 2015).
The ancient Greeks colonized Kamarina, a city-state in southeastern Sicily, in 598 B.C., and remained there until the middle of the first century A.D., Sulosky Weaver said. Inhabitants used the city's necropolis, called Passo Marinaro, from the fifth to the third centuries B.C., she added.
About 85 percent of the burials in Passo Marinaro contain intact skeletons that are either lying flat on their backs or on their sides with bent knees, according to reports from Giovanni Di Stefano, one of the site's principal excavators during the 1980s. The remaining 15 percent of the burials are cremations, and about half of the graves contain artifacts, such as terracotta vases, figurines and coins.
Supernatural superstitions
The two unusual graves immediately caught researchers' attention.
For her book, Sulosky Weaver "needed to understand why these individuals would be buried in a different manner," she told Live Science in an email, during a dig in Turkey.
One grave held the skeletal remains of an adult of unknown sex whose teeth had lines of arrested growth — a sign of serious malnutrition or illness, Sulosky Weaver said. The head and feet of the person were covered with "large amphora fragments… a large, two-handled ceramic vessel that was typically used for storing liquids," she wrote in the article.
The heavy amphora fragments "were presumably intended to pin the individual to the grave and prevent it from seeing or rising," she added.
 Another grave contains the skeleton of a child, likely age 8 to 13. The skeleton didn't have any signs of disease, but five large stones were placed on top of it, possibly to stop a revenant from leaving the grave, Sulosky Weaver said. [8 Grisly Archaeological Discoveries]
There aren't any known photos of the graves, but Di Stefano drew sketches of each in his journal.
To learn more, Sulosky Weaver surrounded herself with research on supernatural practices among the ancient Greeks. But the Greeks were not alone in their superstitions; other preindustrial societies had similar ways of viewing corpses of certain people, according to the research of folklore historian Paul Barber, she said.
For example, outsiders, illegitimate children, or babies born with abnormalities or on an inauspicious day could be revenants, Sulosky Weaver said. Other candidates included suicides; victims of murder, drowning, plague and curses; and people who were not properly buried, she said. [History's 10 Most Overlooked Mysteries]
The earliest example of revenant burials date to between 4500 and 3800 B.C. in Cyprus, where archaeologists found bodies in graves with millstones pinning down their heads and chests, according to the article.
Another burial uncovered on the Peloponnese Peninsula dating to between 1900 and 1600 B.C. had a large rock over an individual in a stone-built tomb, Sulosky Weaver wrote.
The work of other scholars shows that Greeks living in Kamarina also practiced with "magical" or "curse" tablets called katadesmoi, "so a supernatural explanation for the burials was possible," Sulosky Weaver said.
Katadesmoi are "lead tablets inscribed with petitions, or requests, that would be addressed to underworld deities," she told Live Science. "Usually, the petitioners wanted to gain an advantage in love or business, and it was understood that the deities would direct the spirits of the dead to fulfill the requests of the living. To ensure that the tablets reached the underworld, they would be placed in or near the graves of the recently deceased during secret nighttime ceremonies."
Researchers have found more than 600 katadesmoi from the ancient Greek culture, including 11 from Passo Marinaro, Sulosky Weaver said. Most are degraded and difficult to translate, but some have lists of names, likely of people who were the targets of curses, she said.
Interestingly, a Greco-Roman text dating from between the second century B.C. and the fifth century A.D. tells petitioners to write with ink on seashells to create katadesmoi. Researchers have found three seashells in the Passo Marinaro graves, but it's unclear whether they were intended to serve as katadesmoi, Sulosky Weaver said.
Evidence of these superstitions suggests the ancient Greeks didn't live in fear of the dead, but thought that some dead people could be dangerous or useful to the living, she said.
"Some chose to recruit the dead to achieve specific goals, while others chose to trap potentially dangerous bodies in their graves to keep the living members of the community safe," Sulosky Weaver said. "These activities shed light on some of the lesser-known facets of Greek funerary practice."

Greek god of fertility was depicted with a penis disorder in 2,000-year-old fresco in bid to protect others from debilitating disease



•           The fresco depicts Priapus with a large and constantly erect penis
•           Rather than representing fertility, it may show the disease phimosis
•           This is an inability to retract the foreskin and can be caused by infection
•           Phimosis was widespread among men in Pompeii and the ancient Greeks may have thought this depiction could help ward off the disease


By Ellie Zolfagharifard For Dailymail.com
A famous fresco of the god of fertility shows a serious penis disorder, researchers claim.
The 2,000-year-old fresco of Priapus, which was rescued from Pompeii following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, depicts the fertility god with a large and constantly erect penis.
But a new study argues that this celebrated symbol of male virility actually shows a painful disease that can cause infertility.
Scientists are still unsure why Priapus was depicted in this way, although one suggestion is that the painting was used to help ward off the disease.
'The disproportionate virile member is distinctively characterised by a patent phimosis, more specifically a shut phimosis,' Francesco Maria Galassi from the University of Bologna told Discovery News.
Phimosis is an inability to fully retract the foreskin, and can be caused by an infection, or by scar tissue that formed as a result of injury or inflammation.
Before the introduction of topical drugs, it could only be treated by circumcision or surgery to widen the foreskin.
In Greek mythology, Priapus was a fertility god, protector of livestock, gardens fruit plants, and male genitalia
Galassi says the image of the deity in this instance shows the 'highest grade' of phimosis.
But why would the artist want to portray the god of fertility with such a severe condition?
Phimosis was widespread among the male population in Pompeii, and one theory is that the painter wanted to make a comment on that through his work. 
A separate Fresco of Priapus found in Pompeii. This image shows how the god's penis usually appears in art, compared with the 2,000-year-old painting that shows him suffering from phimosis
'It is not unlikely the painter might have desired to report objective evidence of a high prevalence of that anatomic defect in Pompeii, at a time mixing it with fertility attributes traditionally ascribed to Priapus,' Galassi said.
Another theory is that it was used to protect people against suffering from the disease.
Dr Galassi said that in rural Italy, images and sculptures of Priapus may have been shown with a shut phimosis as a way to ward off the condition in the male family members.
Jessica Hughes, a lecturer in classical studies at Open University, told Discovery News that it was 'intriguing' that a condition causing sexual problems had been given to the god of fertility.
'Perhaps we need to see this painting as a comment on the power of the divine body, which didn't suffer from the same biological limitations as the mortal body,' she said.


PRIAPUS: THE GOD OF FERTILITY 
In Greek mythology, Priapus was a fertility god, protector of livestock, gardens fruit plants, and male genitalia. He is usually depicted with an oversized, permanent erection.
The size of his penis is so enormous that it has been called 'column', 'twelve-inch pole', 'cypress', 'spear', 'pyramid'.
Primitive statues of the god were traditionally set-up in vegetable plots to promote fertility with the added benefit of acting as a type of 'scarecrow.'
According to legend, Hera cursed him with impotence, ugliness and foul-mindedness while he was still in Aphrodite's womb.
This was  in revenge for the hero Paris having the temerity to judge Aphrodite more beautiful than Hera.

The other gods refused to allow him to live on Mount Olympus and threw him down to Earth, leaving him on a hillside. He was eventually found by shepherds and was brought up by them.

Lessons in liberty … ancient Greece produced ideas that have subsequently informed the most significant moments in western political history.


Edith Hall

Just how special were the ancient Greeks? Was there really a Greek “miracle”? The question has become painfully politicised. Critics of colonialism and racism tend to play down the specialness of the ancient Greeks. Those who maintain that there was something identifiably different and even superior about the Greeks, on the other hand, are often die-hard conservatives who have a vested interest in proving the superiority of “western” ideals. I fit into neither camp. I am certainly opposed to colonialism and racism, and have investigated reactionary abuses of the classical tradition in colonial India and by apologists of slavery all the way through to the American Civil War. But my constant engagement with the ancient Greeks and their culture has made me more, rather than less, convinced that they asked a series of crucial questions that are difficult to identify in combination within any of the other cultures of the ancient Mediterranean or Near Eastern antiquity. This is why, as I will go on to argue, I believe in classics for the people – that ideas from the ancient Greeks should be taught to everybody, not just the privileged few.
The foundations of Greek culture were laid long before the arrival of Christianity, between 800 and 300BC. Greek-speakers lived in hundreds of different villages, towns and cities, from Spain to Libya and the Nile Delta, from the freezing river Don in the northeastern corner of the Black Sea to Trebizond. They were culturally elastic, and often freely intermarried with other peoples; they had no sense of ethnic inequality that was biologically determined, since the concepts of distinct world “races” had not been invented. They tolerated and even welcomed imported foreign gods. And what united them was never geopolitics. With the arguable exception of the short-lived Macedonian empire in the later 4th century BC, there never was a recognisable, independent, state run by Greek-speakers, centred in and including what we now know as Greece, until after the Greek war of independence in the early 19th century.
What bound the Greeks together was an enquiring cast of mind underpinned by a wonderful shared set of stories and poems and a restlessness that made them more likely to sail away and found a new city-state than tolerate starvation or oppression in a mainland metropolis. The diasporic, seafaring Greeks, while they invented new communities from scratch and were stimulated by interacting with other ethnic groups, made a rapid series of intellectual discoveries that raised the Mediterranean world to a new level of civilisation. This process of self-education was much admired by the Greeks and Romans of the centuries that followed. When the texts and artworks of classical Greece were rediscovered in the European Renaissance, they changed the world for a second time.
Yet over the last two decades the notion that the Greeks were exceptional has been questioned. It has been emphasised that they were just one of many ethnic and linguistic groups centred in the eastern end of the ancient Mediterranean world. Long before the Greeks appeared in the historical record, several complicated civilisations had existed – the Mesopotamians and Egyptians, the Hattians and Hittites. Other peoples provided the Greeks with crucial technological advances; they learned the phonetic alphabet from the Phoenicians, and how to mint coins from the Lydians. They may have learned how to compose elaborate cult hymns from the mysterious Luwians of Syria and central Anatolia. During the period in which the Greeks invented rational philosophy and science, after 600BC, their horizons were dramatically opened up by the expansion of the Persian empire.
In the late 19th and 20th centuries, our understanding of the other cultures of the Ancient Near East advanced rapidly. We know far more about the minds of the Greeks’ predecessors and neighbours than we did before the landmark discovery of the Epic of Gilgamesh on clay tablets in the Tigris valley in 1853. There has been a stream of newly published texts in the languages of the successive peoples who dominated the fertile plains of Mesopotamia (Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians). The words of Hittites on the tablets found at Hattuša in central Turkey and the phrases inscribed on clay tablets at Ugarit in northern Syria have been deciphered. New texts as well as fresh interpretations of writings by the ancient Egyptians continue to appear, requiring, for example, a reassessment of the importance of the Nubians to North African history. Many of these thrilling advances have revealed how much the Greeks shared with, and absorbed from, their predecessors and neighbours. Painstaking comparative studies have been published which reveal the Greek “miracle” to have been one constituent of a continuous process of intercultural exchange.
It has become a new orthodoxy that the Greeks were very similar to their Ancient Near Eastern neighbours, in Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Levant, Persia and Asia Minor. Some scholars have gone so far as to ask whether the Greeks came up with anything new at all, or whether they merely acted as a conduit through which the combined wisdom of all the civilisations of the eastern Mediterranean was disseminated across the territories conquered by Alexander the Great, before arriving at Rome and posterity. Others have seen sinister racist motives at work and accused classicists of creating in their own image the Oldest Dead White European Males; some have claimed, with some justification, that northern Europeans have systematically distorted and concealed the evidence showing how much the ancient Greeks owed to Semitic and African peoples rather than to Indo-European, “Aryan” traditions.
Taken singly, most Greek achievements can be paralleled in the culture of at least one of their neighbours. The Babylonians knew about Pythagoras’s theorem centuries before Pythagoras was born. The tribes of the Caucasus had brought mining and metallurgy to unprecedented levels. The Hittites had made advances in chariot technology, but they were also highly literate. They recorded the polished and emotive orations delivered on formal occasions in their royal court, and their carefully argued legal speeches. One Hittite king foreshadows Greek historiography when he chronicles in detail his frustration at the incompetence of some of his military officers during the siege of a Hurrian city. The Phoenicians were just as great seafarers as any Greeks. The Egyptians developed medicine based on empirical experience rather than religious dogma and told Odyssey-like stories about sailors who went missing and returned after adventures overseas. Pithy fables similar to those of Aesop were composed in an archaic Aramaic dialect of Syria and housed in Jewish temples. Architectural design concepts and technical know-how came from the Persians to the Greek world via the many Ionian Greek workmen who helped build Persepolis, Susa and Pasargadae, named Yauna in Persian texts. Nevertheless, none of these peoples produced anything equivalent to Athenian democracy, comic theatre, philosophical logic or Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics.
I do not deny that the Greeks acted as a conduit for other ancient peoples’ achievements. But to function successfully as a conduit, channel or intermediary is in itself to perform an exceptional role. It requires a range of talents and resources. Taking over someone else’s technical knowledge requires an opportunistic ability to identify a serendipitous find or encounter, excellent communicative skills and the imagination to see how a technique, story or object could be adapted to a different linguistic and cultural milieu. In this sense, the Romans fruitfully took over substantial achievements of their civilisation from the Greeks, as did the Renaissance Humanists. Of course the Greeks were not by nature or in potential superior to any other human beings, either physically or intellectually. Indeed, they themselves often commented on how difficult it was to distinguish Greek from non-Greek, let alone free person from slave, if all the trappings of culture, clothing and adornment were removed. But that does not mean they were not the right people, in the right place, at the right time, to take up the human baton of intellectual progress for several hundred years.
And that period of intellectual ferment produced ideas that have subsequently informed the most significant moments in western political history. Thomas Jefferson, framing the Declaration of Independence, took the idea of the pursuit of happiness from Aristotle. Toussaint Louverture read Plutarch’s account of Spartacus before leading the first successful slave rebellion in Haiti in 1791. Thomas Paine argued that issues such as the relationship of religion to the state should be discussed with reference to historical examples from antiquity onwards. Chartist leaders were inspired by the Athenian democratic revolution. Women suffragists recited at their meetings the resounding speech that the tragedian Euripides gives his heroine Medea on the economic, political and sexual oppression of the entire female sex.
The Greeks, more even than the Romans, show us how to question received opinion and authority. The earliest myths reveal mankind actively disputing the terms on which the Olympian gods want to rule them, and the philanthropic god Prometheus rebelling against Zeus in order to steal fire – a divine prerogative – and give it to mortal men. Sophocles’ Antigone refuses to accept her tyrannical uncle’s arbitrary edict, draws crucial distinctions between moral decency and contingent legislation, and buries her brother anyway. Aristophanes, in his democratic comedies, subjected politicians who wielded power to satire of eye-watering savagery. Socrates dedicated his life to proving the difference between the truth and received opinion, the unexamined life being, in his view, not worth living. No wonder Hobbes thought that reading Greek and Roman authors should be banned by any self-respecting tyrant, in Leviathan arguing that they foment revolution under the slogan of liberty, instilling in people a habit “of favouring uproars, lawlessly controlling the actions of their sovereigns, and then controlling those controllers”.
The recent general election has exposed the danger inherent in vote-based democracies: that they inevitably entail large disaffected minorities being excluded from executive power. The ancient Greek inventors of democracy vigorously debated this issue, having painful historical experience of it – recorded by Thucydides – and theoretical solutions – discussed by Aristotle. Yet in Britain today, few secondary school students are ever given the opportunity to investigate the dazzling thought-world of the Greeks. This is despite the existence for half a century of excellent GCSE and A-level courses in classical civilisation, which have been a success wherever introduced, and can be taught cost-effectively across the state-school sector. The failure to include classical civilisation among the subjects taught in every secondary school deprives us and our future citizens of access to educational treasures which can not only enthral, but fulfil what Jefferson argued in Notes on the State of Virginia (1782) was the main goal of education in a democracy: to enable us to defend our liberty. History, he proposed, is the subject that equips citizens for this. To stay free also requires comparison of constitutions, utopian thinking, fearlessness about innovation, critical, lateral and relativist thinking, advanced epistemological skills in source criticism and the ability to argue cogently. All these skills can be learned from their succinct, entertaining, original formulations and applications in the works of the Greeks.
The situation is aggravated by the role that training in the ancient languages, as opposed to ancient ideas, plays in dividing social and economic classes. One of the many ways in which the schism between rich and poor in Britain is reflected educationally is in access to Greek and Latin grammar. In 2013 (the last year for which figures are available), 3,580 state-sector candidates took A-levels in classical civilisation or ancient history. Greek A-level was taken by 260 candidates; 223 of these were at independent schools, which only 7% of our children attend; Latin was taken by 1305 candidates, a depressing 940 of whom were at independent schools. High grades in the ancient languages – easily enough won by solicitous coaching – provide near-guaranteed access to our most elite universities. For those without Greek and Latin A-levels there are indeed Oxbridge opportunities: a four-year classics course at Cambridge, and at Oxford the fast-track “Course II” as well as two smaller courses (ancient and modern history, ancient history and archaeology) focussing on history and material culture rather than literature and philosophy. The chances of admission for these are in line with other courses such as English and history. But it is easier to get into Oxbridge to read the long-established classics courses, requiring an ancient language A-level, than any other subject: between 2012 and 2014, for the traditional classics “Course I” at Oxford, 51 students were accepted from the state sector and 233 from fee-paying schools. There is nothing like such a high percentage of privately educated students on any other course; there is no similarly high chance of admission – at around 45%. Classics applicants have a comparable chance of getting into Cambridge, at 45%; Cambridge has only a slightly better ratio of state-sector students.
To me, as a Greek scholar, educated in the 1970s and 80s entirely at the taxpayer’s expense at a direct grant school and at Oxford, this is profoundly embarrassing. Instead of Greek ideas expanding the minds of all young citizens, Greek denotes money and provides a queue-jumping ticket to privilege.
How can we eradicate the apartheid system in British classics? First, we need to support classical civilisation qualifications, campaign for their introduction in every school and recognise their excellence as intellectual preparation for adult life and university. Specifically, classical civilisation needs to be recognised in the English baccalaureate and given the same governmental support as Latin.
Second, we need to expand the tiny number of teachers trained to teach classical civilisation via classics-dedicated PGCE courses, and also, crucially, encourage qualified teachers of other subjects in schools – English, history, modern languages, religious studies – to add classical civilisation to their repertoire. Take Christ the King Sixth Form College in south London. A committed philosophy teacher there, Eddie Barnett, was inspired by the enthusiastic response elicited by the (small) Plato element on the A-level philosophy syllabus; he has recently secured an agreement that classical civilisation will be rolled out at all three campuses of the college. Classical civilisation qualifications are embraced by most universities already, and this is the first year in which it has been possible for Open University students to graduate with single honours in classical studies, even if they have had no contact with the Greeks and Romans previously. But Oxford and Cambridge, with their fame and brand, now need to lead by example and offer challenging classics courses that do not fetishise grammar and consequently repel state-sector students who have been excited by reading classics in English. This means engaging with literary texts fearlessly in translation plus increasing the importance of critical thinking and lowering that of language acquisition. Undergraduate degrees are supposed to produce competent citizens. Traditional classics courses are not making the most of those ancient authors on their curriculum who enhance civic as opposed to syntactical competence.
There is, however, an obstacle to such citizen-friendly proposals for the future of classics – the contempt directed from some upper echelons of the classics community against GCSEs and A-levels in classical civilisation. Some classics scholars and alumni happily maintain the exclusive private-school/Oxbridge monopoly on the Greeks. Almost all the energy currently expended by some classics-friendly charities on supporting a classical presence in the state system is directed towards Latin. I have, of course, no objection to Latin teaching, but focusing on it exclusively entails three dangers. First, plenty of talented young people with a great deal to offer society don’t particularly enjoy grammar and are put off the ancient world forever by being offered a diet that is too heavy on language, when they might be thrilled by other aspects of antiquity. Second, omitting the broader, more conceptually stretching study of the ancient world, and especially of Greek thought, implicitly suggests that Latin has a prior claim on our citizens’ attentions. Third, placing the emphasis on training in Latin grammar encourages classical Luddites (who would rather destroy the modern study of the ancient world than see any overhaul of pedagogical tradition) publicly to disparage classical civilisation’s in-depth study of ancient society.
One prominent Oxford-trained journalist, Harry Mount, in an article lamenting the decline of Greek in schools, recently described classical civilisation qualifications as “intellectual baby food” with which students are spoon-fed, and as “classics lite”. This was to insult the entire community of state-sector classicists and anyone who ever reads an ancient author in translation. He and his associates have forgotten Gilbert Murray’s injunction that it is the Greeks, not Greek, who are the true object of the humanist curriculum. They have forgotten Milton, who wrote in his treatise Of Education that language study “is but the instrument convaying to us things usefull to be known”. If a linguist has “not studied the solid things in them as well as the words and lexicons, he were nothing so much to be esteem’d a learned man, as any yeoman or tradesman competently wise in his mother dialect only”. Jefferson said exactly the opposite to Mount: he proposed that impressionable minds of the ablest younger children, including the poor ones he wanted to be funded by the state, could be kept safely occupied with rote learning of the minutiae of ancient languages, until they acquired sufficient intellectual robustness in mid-adolescence to cope with truly rigorous education in argumentation. That is, he saw language learning as the intellectual baby food.
The instrumentality of ancient languages in social exclusion has an inglorious history which we surely do not want to perpetuate. In 1748, the Earl of Chesterfield wrote to his son: “Classical knowledge, that is, Greek and Latin, is absolutely necessary for everybody … the word illiterate, in its common acceptance, means a man who is ignorant of these two languages.” Classical knowledge is here limited to linguistic knowledge, education to men, and literacy to reading competence in Greek and Latin. Greek was also handy when white people wanted to deride the intellectual abilities of black ones. In 1833-4, American pro-slavery thinkers were on the defensive. The senator for South Carolina, John C Calhoun, declared at a Washington dinner party that only when he could “find a Negro who knew the Greek syntax” could he be brought to “believe that the Negro was a human being and should be treated as a man”. This snipe motivated a free black errand boy, Alexander Crummell, to head for Cambridge University in England. There he indeed learned Greek as part of his studies, financed by abolitionist campaigners, in theology at Queens’ College (1851–3).
The best-known example is the hero of Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure. Jude Fawley, a poor stonemason living in a Victorian village, is desperate to study Latin and Greek at university. He gazes on the spires and domes of the University of Christminster – they “gleamed” like topaz. The lustrous topaz shares its golden colour with the stone used to build Oxbridge colleges, but is one of the hardest minerals in nature. Jude’s fragile psyche and health inevitably collapse when he discovers just how unbreakable are the social barriers that exclude him from elite culture. Hardy was writing from personal experience: as the son of a stonemason himself, and apprenticed to an architect’s firm, he had been denied a public school and university education; like Fawley, he had struggled to learn enough Greek to read the Iliad as a teenager. Unlike Jude, Hardy rose through the social ranks to become a prosperous member of the literary establishment. But he never resolved his internal conflict between admiration for Greek and Latin authors and resentment of the supercilious attitude of some members of the upper classes who had been formally trained in them.
There is in fact a splendid history of the ancient authors being read by Britons far beyond the privileged elite, a history that has been ignored by those rich enough to be able to give their children the opportunity to learn ancient languages. Pope’s early 18th-century translations of the Iliad and Odyssey brought Homer to a far larger audience, including women, than ever had access to an elite education. Take Esther Easton, a Jedburgh gardener’s wife, visited by the poet Robert Burns in 1787. He recorded that “she can repeat by heart almost everything she has ever read, particularly Pope’s ‘Homer’ from end to end” and “is a woman of very extraordinary abilities”. Pope’s Homer also captured the childhood imagination of Hugh Miller, another Scot, a stonemason and a distinguished autodidact, who grew up to become a world-famous geologist. He saw the Iliad as incomparable, and wrote in My Schools and Schoolmasters (1854) that he had learned early “that no other writer could cast a javelin with half the force of Homer. The missiles went whizzing athwart his pages; and I could see the momentary gleam of the steel, ere it buried itself deep in brass and bull-hide.”
There is an alternative history of classical scholarship – the history of many individuals, brave, stubborn, naive, or all three – who, in the face of every kind of obstruction did succeed in “entering Minerva’s temple”, as the working-class imagination often framed the project of autodidacticism. The most prodigious of British autodidacts was Joseph Wright, a Victorian workhouse boy who became professor of comparative philology at Oxford. Illiterate at the age of 15, he discovered his aptitude for languages at a Wesleyan night school, funded a PhD in Greek at Heidelberg by teaching incessantly, and, before appointment to his chair, lectured for the Association for the Higher Education of Women.
The Reverend John Relly Beard was a crucial force behind the movement for popular education in Lancashire and never wavered in his zeal for universal education to the highest level. He wrote accessible works on classical and biblical subjects, Latin Made Easy and Cassell’s Lessons in Greek … Intended Especially for Those Who Are Desirous of Learning Greek Without the Assistance of a Master. In this teach-yourself manual he is explicit about the readership he assumes: “The wants of what may roughly be termed the uneducated, will be carefully borne in mind by me, while I prepare these lessons … My purpose is to simplify the study of Greek so as to throw open to all who are earnest the great work of self-culture.”Organised working-class libraries reveal a fascinating alternative canon of books relating to the ancient word, from the first workers’ libraries in Europe established in the 1750s at Leadhills and Wanlockhead in Dumfries and Galloway to the foundation of the Workers’ Educational Association. By the end of the 19th century, these libraries’ holdings were often influenced by “Lubbock’s List”, the 100 books in 1887 deemed “best worth reading” by John Lubbock, principal of the Working-Men’s College in London from 1883 to 1899. Lubbock, who became the first Baron Avebury, was himself from a privileged banking family, and educated at Eton. Although he did not attend university, he was a polymath, specialising in archaeology and biological sciences. The proportion of classical authors in his list is remarkable: Marcus Aurelius, Epictetus, Aristotle’s Ethics and Politics, Plutarch’s Lives, Homer, Hesiod, Virgil, Aeschylus’s Prometheus and Oresteia, Sophocles’ Oedipus, Euripides’ Medea, Herodotus, Thucydides, Livy and many more. In addition, two famous works on ancient history – Gibbon’s The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and Grote’s History of Greece – make it on to the list, along with the most popular novel set in antiquity, Edward Bulwer-Lytton’s The Last Days of Pompeii. More than a quarter of all the books are by classical authors, and more than a third addressed to classical antiquity.
The 109 libraries of the South Wales coalfield are a wonder of labour history, and the books really were taken out. At Ebbw Vale, each reader borrowed an average of 52 volumes a year. The “Condensed Accessions Book” of Bargoed Colliery Library details its holdings by 1921-2. Texts in Latin and Greek are absent: until 1918 almost all miners had left school on their 13th birthday. But the “alternative classical curriculum” of the miner was wide-ranging. He read translations and biographies such as JB Forbes’s Socrates (1905). He learned about the Greeks from HB Cotterill’s Ancient Greece (1913), the Egyptians from George Rawlinson’s Herodotean History of Ancient Egypt (1880), and mythology from several books by Andrew Lang.
This inspiring past of people’s Greek can help us to look forward. It is theoretically in our power as British citizens to create the curriculum we want. In my personal utopia, the ancient Greek language would be universally available free of charge to everyone who wants to learn it, at whatever age – as would, for that matter, Latin, classical civilisation, ancient history, philosophy, Anglo-Saxon, Basque, Coptic, Syriac and Hittite. But classical civilisation qualifications are the admirable, economically viable and attainable solution that has evolved organically in our state sector. Classicists who do not actively promote them will justifiably be perceived as elitist dinosaurs.


Edith Hall gave the Gaisford Lecture at the University of Oxford. Her Introducing the Ancient Greeks is published by Bodley Head.


In 1962, six year old John Tuohy, his two brothers and two sisters entered Connecticut’s foster care system and were prompltyl spilit apart. Over the next ten years, John would live in more then ten foster homes, group homes and state schools, from his native Waterbury to Ansonia, New Haven, West Haven, Deep River and Hartford. In the end, a decade later, the state returned him to the same home and the same parents they had taken him from. As tragic as is funny complelling story will make you cry and laugh as you journey with this child to overcome the obsticales of the foster care system and find his dreams.
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Mythological Characters

  
Mythological Characters

=Abas= (Aʹbas), a son of Meganira, was turned into a newt, or water-lizard, for deriding the ceremonies of the Sacrifice.

=Absyrtus= (Absyʹrtus). After Jason had slain the dragon which guarded the golden fleece, he fled with Medea, the beautiful young sorceress, and daughter of Aeetes, who pursued with great energy, for Medea had taken with her the most precious treasure of the king, his only son and heir, Absyrtus. To delay the pursuit, Medea slew her little brother, cut the body in pieces, and dropped them over the side of the vessel. Thus the cruel daughter effected her escape.

=Achelous= (Acheloʹus) was a river god, and the rival of Hercules in his love for Deianira. To decide who should have the bride, Hercules and Achelous had recourse to a wrestling bout, the fame of which
extends through all the intervening centuries. In this fierce struggle, Achelous changed himself into the form of a bull and rushed upon his antagonist with lowered horns, intending to hurl him aside.
Hercules eluded the onset, and seizing one of the huge horns, held it so firmly that it was broken off by the furious efforts of Achelous to free himself. He was defeated, and finally turned himself into a
river, which has since been known by his name.

=Acheron= (Achʹeron) (see "The Youth's Classical Dictionary"). The current of the river Acheron, across which all souls had to pass to hear their decree from Pluto, was so swift that the boldest swimmer
dare not attempt to breast it; and, since there was no bridge, the spirits were obliged to rely upon the aid of Charon, an aged boatman, who plied the only boat that was available. He would allow no soul to
enter this leaky craft until he had received the obolus, or fare, which the ancients carefully placed under the tongue of the dead, that they might not be delayed in their passage to Pluto. Those who had not
their fare were forced to wait one hundred years, when Charon reluctantly ferried them over without charge.

=Achilles= (Achilʹles) was the most valiant of the Greek heroes in the Trojan War. He was the son of Peleus, King of Thessaly. His mother, Thetis, plunged him, when an infant, into the Stygian pool, which
made him invulnerable wherever the waters had washed him; but the heel by which he was held was not wetted, and that part remained vulnerable. He was shot with an arrow in the heel by Paris, at the
siege of Troy, and died of his wound.

=Acidalia= (Acidaʹlia), a name given to Venus, from a fountain in Boeotia.

=Acis= (Aʹcis). A Sicilian shepherd, loved by the nymph Galatea. One of the Cyclops who was jealous of him crushed him by hurling a rock on him. Galatea turned his blood into a river--the Acis at the foot of
Mount Etna.

=Actaeon= (Actaeʹon) was the son of Aristaeus, a famous huntsman. He intruded himself on Diana while she was bathing, and was changed by her into a deer, in which form he was hunted by his own dogs and torn in pieces.

=Adonis= (Adoʹnis), the beautiful attendant of Venus, who held her train. He was killed by a boar, and turned by Venus into an anemone.

=Adrastaea= (Adrastaeʹa), another name of Nemesis, one of the goddesses of justice.

=Adscriptitii Dii= (Adscriptiʹtii Dii) were the gods of the second grade.

=Aeacus= (Aeʹacus), one of the judges of hell, with Minos and Rhadamanthus. See Eacus.

=Aecastor= (Aecasʹtor), an oath used only by women, referring to the Temple of Castor.

=Aedepol= (Aedʹepol), an oath used by both men and women, referring to the Temple of Pollux.

=Aeetes= (Aeeʹtes), a king of Colchis, and father of Medea.

=Aegeon= (Aegeʹon), a giant with fifty heads and one hundred hands,who was imprisoned by Jupiter under Mount Etna. See Briareus.

=Aegis= (Aeʹgis), the shield of Jupiter, so called because it was made of goat-skin.
   
=Aegle= (Aeʹgle). The fairest of the Naiads.

=Aello= (Aelʹlo), the name of one of the Harpies.

=Aeneas= (Aeneʹas) was the son of Anchises and Venus. He was one of the few great captains who escaped the destruction of Troy. He behaved with great valor during the siege, encountering Diomed, and even Achilles himself. When the Grecians had set the city on fire Aeneas took his aged father, Anchises, on his shoulders, while his son, Aius, and his wife Creusa, clung to his garments. He saved them all from the flames. After wandering about during several years, encountering numerous difficulties, he at length arrived in Italy, where he was hospitably received by Latinus, king of the Latins. After the death of Latinus Aeneas became king.

=Aeolus= (Aeoʹlus) was the god of the winds. Jupiter was his reputed father, and his mother is said to have been a daughter of Hippotus. Aeolus is represented as having the power of holding the winds
confined in a cavern, and occasionally giving them liberty to blow over the world. So much command was he supposed to have over them that when Ulysses visited him on his return from Troy he gave him, tied up in a bag, all the winds that could prevent his voyage from being prosperous. The companions of Ulysses, fancying that the bag contained treasure, cut it open just as they came in sight of Ithaca, the port they were making for, and the contrary winds rushing out drove back the ship many leagues. The residence of Aeolus was at Strongyle, now called Strombolo.

=Aesculapius= (Aesculaʹpius), the god of physic, was a son of Apollo. He was physician to the Argonauts in their famous expedition to Colchis. He became so noted for his cures that Pluto became jealous of
him, and he requested Jupiter to kill him with a thunderbolt. To revenge his son's death Apollo slew the Cyclops who had forged the thunderbolt. By his marriage with Epione he had two sons, Machaon and
Podalirius, both famous physicians, and four daughters, of whom Hygeia, the goddess of health, is the most renowned. Many temples were  erected in honor of Aesculapius, and votive tablets were hung therein by people who had been healed by him; but his most famous shrine was at Epidaurus, where, every five years, games were held in his honor. This god is variously represented, but the most famous statue shows him seated on a throne of gold and ivory. His head is crowned with rays, and he wears a long beard. A knotty stick is in one hand, and a staff entwined with a serpent is in the other, while a dog lies at his feet.

=Aeson= (Aeʹson) was father of Jason, and was restored to youth by Medea.

=Agamemnon= (Agamemʹnon) was the son of Plisthenes and brother of Menelaus. He was king of the Argives. His brother's wife was the Famous  Helen, daughter of Tyndarus, king of Sparta; and when she
eloped with Paris, Agamemnon was appointed leader of the Greeks in their expedition against Troy.

=Aganippides= (Aganipʹpides), a name of the Muses, derived from the fountain of Aganippe.

=Aglaia= (Aglaʹia) was one of the Three Graces.

=Ajax= (Aʹjax) was one of the bravest of the Greek warriors in the Trojan War. His father was Telamon, and his mother Eriboea. Some writers say that he was killed by Ulysses; others aver that he was
slain by Paris; while others again assert that he went mad after being defeated by Ulysses, and killed himself. Another Ajax, son of Oileus, also took a prominent part in the Trojan War.

=Alcestis= (Alcesʹtis), wife of Admetus, who, to save her husband's life, died in his stead, and was restored to life by Hercules.

=Alcides= (Alciʹdes), one of the names of Hercules.

=Alcmena= (Alcmeʹna), the mother of Hercules, was daughter of Electryon, a king of Argos.

=Alecto= (Alecʹto) was one of the Furies. She is depicted as having serpents instead of hair on her head, and was supposed to breed pestilence wherever she went.

=Alectryon= (Alecʹtryon), a servant of Mars, who was changed by him into a cock because he did not warn his master of the rising of the sun.

=Alma Mammosa= (Alʹma Mammoʹsa), a name of Ceres.

=Alpheus= (Alpheʹus), a river god. See Arethusa.

=Altar.= A structure on which a sacrifice was offered. The earliest altars were merely heaps of earth or turf or rough unhewn stone; but as the mode of sacrificing became more ceremonious grander altars were built. Some were of marble and brass, ornamented with carvings and bas-reliefs, and the corners with models of the heads of animals. They varied in height from two feet to twenty, and some were built solid; others were made hollow to retain the blood of the victims. Some were provided with a kind of dish, into which frankincense was thrown to overpower the smell of burning fat. This probably was the origin of the custom of burning incense at the altar.

=Amalthaea= (Amalʹthaeʹa), the goat which nourished Jupiter.

=Amazons= (Amʹazons) were a nation of women-soldiers who lived in Scythia. Hercules totally defeated them, and gave Hippolyte, their queen, to Theseus for a wife. The race seems to have been exterminated after this battle.

=Ambarvalia= (Ambarvaʹlia) were festivals in honor of Ceres, instituted by Roman husbandmen to purge their fields. At the spring festival the head of each family led an animal, usually a pig or ram,
decked with oak boughs, round his grounds, and offered milk and new wine. After harvest there was another festival, at which Ceres was presented with the first-fruits of the season. See Ceres.

=Ambrosia= (Ambroʹsia) were Bacchanalian festivals.

=Amica= (Amiʹca), a name of Venus.

=Amphion= (Amphiʹon) was the son of Jupiter and Antiope. He was greatly skilled in music; and it is said that, at the sound of his lute, the stones arranged themselves so regularly as to make the walls
of the city of Thebes.

=Amphitrite= (Amphitriʹte) (or =Salatia=), the wife of Neptune, was a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. She was the mother of Triton, a sea god.

=Amycus= (Amyʹcus) was king of Bebrycia. He was a son of Neptune, and was killed by Pollux.

=Ancaeus= (Ancaeʹus). A son of Neptune, who left a cup of wine to hunt a wild boar which killed him, and the wine was untasted. This was the origin of the proverb--"There's many a slip 'twixt cup and lip."

=Ancilia= (Ancilʹia), the twelve sacred shields. The first Ancile was supposed to have fallen from heaven in answer to the prayer of Numa Pompilius. It was kept with the greatest care, as it was prophesied
that the fate of the Roman people would depend upon its preservation. An order of priesthood was established to take care of the Ancilia, and on 1st March each year the shields were carried in procession, and in the evening there was a great feast, called Coena Saliaris.

=Andromeda= (Andromʹeda), the daughter of Cepheus, king of the Ethiopians, was wife of Perseus, by whom she was rescued when she was chained to a rock and was about to be devoured by a sea-monster.

=Anemone= (Anemʹone). Venus changed Adonis into this flower.

=Angeronia= (Angeroʹnia), otherwise Volupia, was the goddess who had the power of dispelling anguish of mind.

=Anna Perenna= (Anna Perenʹna), one of the rural divinities.

=Antaeus= (Antaeʹus), a giant who was vanquished by Hercules. Each time that Hercules threw him the giant gained fresh strength from touching the earth, so Hercules lifted him off the ground and squeezed
him to death.

=Anteros= (Anʹteros), one of the two Cupids, sons of Venus.

=Anticlea= (Anticʹlea), the mother of Ulysses.

=Antiope= (Antiʹope) was the wife of Lycus, King of Thebes. Jupiter, disguised as a satyr, led her astray and corrupted her.

=Anubis= (Anuʹbis) (or Hermanubis (Hermanʹubis)). "A god half a dog, a dog half a man." Called _Barker_ by Virgil and other poets.

=Aonides= (Aonʹides), a name of the Muses, from the country Aonia.

=Apaturia= (Apaturʹia), an Athenian festival, which received its name from a Greek word signifying deceit.

=Aphrodite= (Aphʹrodiʹte), a Greek name of Venus.

=Apollo= (Apolʹlo). This famous god, some time King of Arcadia, was the son of Jupiter and Latona. He was known by several names, but principally by the following:--Sol (the sun); Cynthius, from the
mountain called Cynthus in the Isle of Delos, and this same island being his native place obtained for him the name of Delius; Delphinius, from his occasionally assuming the shape of a dolphin. His
name of Delphicus was derived from his connection with the splendid Temple at Delphi, where he uttered the famous oracles. Some writers record that this oracle became dumb when Jesus Christ was born. Other common names of Apollo were Didymaeus, Nomius, Paean, and Phoebus. The Greeks called him Agineus, because the streets were under his guardianship, and he was called Pythius from having killed the serpent Python. Apollo is usually represented as a handsome young man without
beard, crowned with laurel, and having in one hand a bow, and in the other a lyre. The favorite residence of Apollo was on Mount Parnassus, a mountain of Phocis, in Greece, where he presided over the Muses. Apollo was the accredited father of several children, but the two most renowned were Aesculapius and Phaeton.

=Apotheosis= (Apotheʹosis). The consecration of a god. The ceremony of deification.

=Arachne= (Arachʹne), a Lydian princess, who challenged Minerva to a spinning contest, but Minerva struck her on the head with a spindle, and turned her into a spider.

=Arcadia= (Arcaʹdia), a delightful country in the center of Peloponnessus, a favorite place of the gods. Apollo was reputed to have been King of Arcadia.

=Arcas= (Arʹcas), a son of Calisto, was turned into a he-bear; and afterward into the constellation called Ursa Minor.

=Areopagitae= (Areopʹagiʹtae), the judges who sat at the Areopagus.

=Areopagus= (Areopʹagus), the hill at Athens where Mars was tried for murder before twelve of the gods.

=Ares= (Aʹres). The same as Mars, the god of war.

=Arethusa= (Arethuʹsa) was one of the nymphs of Diana. She fled from Alpheus, a river god, and was enabled to escape by being turned by Diana into a rivulet which ran underground. She was as virtuous as she was beautiful.

=Argonauts= (Arʹgonauts). This name was given to the fifty heroes who sailed to Colchis in the ship Argo, under the command of Jason, to fetch the Golden Fleece.

=Argus= (Arʹgus) was a god who had a hundred eyes which slept and watched by turns. He was charged by Juno to watch Io, but, being slain by Mercury, was changed by Juno into a peacock.

=Ariadne= (Ariadʹne), daughter of Minos, King of Crete. After enabling Theseus to get out of the Labyrinth by means of a clew of thread, she fled with him to Naxos, where he ungratefully deserted her; but Bacchus wooed her and married her, and the crown of seven stars which he gave her was turned into a constellation.

=Arion= (Ariʹon) was a famous lyric poet of Methymna, in the Island of Lesbos, where he gained great riches by his art. There is a pretty fable which has made the name of Arion famous. Once when traveling
from Lesbos his companions robbed him, and proposed to throw him into the sea. He entreated the seamen to let him play upon his harp before they threw him overboard, and he played so sweetly that the dolphins flocked round the vessel. He then threw himself into the sea, and one of the dolphins took him up and carried him to Taenarus, near Corinth. For this act the dolphin was raised to heaven as a constellation.

=Aristaeus= (Aristaeʹus), son of Apollo and Cyrene, was the god of trees; he also taught mankind the use of honey, and how to get oil from olives. He was a celebrated hunter. His most famous son was
Actaeon.

=Armata= (Armaʹta), one of the names of Venus, given to her by Spartan women.

=Artemis= (Arʹtemis). This was the Grecian name of Diana, and the festivals at Delphi were called Artemisia.

=Aruspices= (Arusʹpices), sacrificial priests.

=Ascalaphus= (Ascalʹaphus) was changed into an owl, the harbinger of misfortune, by Ceres, because he informed Pluto that Proserpine had partaken of food in the infernal regions, and thus prevented her
return to earth.

=Ascanius= (Ascaʹnius), the son of Aeneas and Creusa.

=Ascolia= (Ascolʹia), Bacchanalian feasts, from a Greek word meaning a leather bottle. The bottles were used in the games to jump on.

=Asopus= (Asoʹpus). A son of Jupiter, who was killed by one of his father's thunderbolts.

=Assabinus= (Assabiʹnus), the Ethiopian name of Jupiter.

=Astarte= (Astarʹte), one of the Eastern names of Venus.

=Asteria= (Asteʹria), daughter of Caeus, was carried away by Jupiter, who assumed the shape of an eagle.

=Astrea= (Astreʹa), mother of Nemesis, was the goddess of justice; she returned to heaven when the earth became corrupt.

=Atalanta= (Atalanʹta) was daughter of Caeneus. The oracle told her that marriage would be fatal to her, but, being very beautiful, she had many suitors. She was a very swift runner, and, to get rid of her
admirers, she promised to marry any one of them who should outstrip her in a race, but that all who were defeated should be slain. Hippomenes, however, with the aid of Venus, was successful. That
goddess gave him three golden apples, one of which he dropped whenever Atalanta caught up to him in the race. She stopped to pick them up, and he was victorious and married her. They were both afterward turned into lions by Cybele, for profaning her temple.

=Ate= (Aʹte). The goddess of revenge, also called the goddess of discord and all evil. She was banished from heaven by her father Jupiter.

=Athena= (Atheʹna), a name obtained by Minerva as the tutelary goddess of Athens.

=Atreus= (Atʹreus), the type of fraternal hatred. His dislike of his brother Thyestes went to the extent of killing and roasting his nephews, and inviting their father to a feast, which Thyestes thought
was a sign of reconciliation, but he was the victim of his brother's detestable cruelty.

=Atropos= (Atʹropos), one of the three sisters called The Fates, who held the shears ready to cut the thread of life.

=Atys= (Aʹtys), son of Croesus, was born dumb, but when in a fight he saw a soldier about to kill the king he gained speech, and cried out, "Save the king!" and the string that held his tongue was broken.

=Atys= (Aʹtys) was a youth beloved by Aurora, and was slain by her father, but, according to Ovid, was afterward turned into a pine-tree.

=Augaeas= (Augʹaeas), a king of Elis, the owner of the stable which Hercules cleansed after three thousand oxen had been kept in it for thirty years. It was cleansed by turning the river Alpheus through it.Augaeas promised to give Hercules a tenth part of his cattle for his trouble but, for neglecting to keep his promise, Hercules slew him.

=Augury= (Auʹgury). This was a means adopted by the Romans of forming a judgment of futurity by the flight of birds, and the officiating priest was called an augur.

=Aurora= (Auroʹra), the goddess of the morning, She was daughter of Sol, the sun, and was the mother of the stars and winds. She is represented as riding in a splendid golden chariot drawn by white horses. The goddess loved Tithonus, and begged the gods to grant him immortality, but forgot to ask at the same time that he  should not get old and decrepit. See Tithonus.
   
=Auster= (Ausʹter), the south wind, a son of Jupiter.

=Avernus= (Averʹnus), a poisonous lake, referred to by poets as being at the entrance of the infernal regions, but it was really a lake in Campania, in Italy.

=Averruncus Deus= (Averrunʹcus Deus), a Roman god, who could divert people from evil-doing.

=Bacchantes= (Bacʹchantes). The priestesses of Bacchus.

=Bacchus= (Bacʹchus), the god of wine, was the son of Jupiter and Semele. He is said to have married Ariadne, daughter of Minos, King of Crete, after she was deserted by Theseus. The most distinguished of
his children is Hymen, the god of marriage. Bacchus is sometimes referred to under the names of Dionysius, Biformis, Brisaeus, Iacchus, Lenaeus, Lyceus, Liber, and Liber Pater, the symbol of liberty. The
god of wine is usually represented as crowned with vine and ivy leaves. In his left hand is a thyrsus, a kind of javelin, having a fir cone for the head, and being encircled with ivy or vine. His chariot
is drawn by lions, tigers, or panthers.

=Balios= (Baʹlios). A famous horse given by Neptune to Peleus as a wedding present, and was afterward given to Achilles.

=Bassarides= (Bassarʹides). The priestesses of Bacchus were sometimesso called.

=Bellerophon= (Bellerʹophon), a hero who destroyed a monster called the Chimaera.

=Bellona= (Belloʹna), the goddess of war, and wife of Mars. The 24th March was called Bellona's Day, when her votaries cut themselves with knives and drank the blood of the sacrifice.

=Belphegor= (Belpheʹgor), see Baal-Peor.


=Berecynthia= (Berecynʹthia), a name of Cybele, from a mountain where she was worshiped.

=Biformis= (Biʹformis), a name of Bacchus, because he was accounted both bearded and beardless.

=Bona Dea= (Boʹna Deʹa). "The bountiful goddess," whose festival was celebrated by the Romans with much magnificence. See Ceres.

=Bonus Eventus= (Boʹnus Evenʹtus). The god of good success, a rural divinity.

=Boreas= (Boʹreas), the north wind, son of Astraeus and Aurora.

=Briareus= (Briʹareus), a famous giant. See Aegeon.

=Brisaeus= (Brisʹaeus). A name of Bacchus, referring to the use of grapes and honey.

=Brontes= (Brontʹes), one of the Cyclops. He is the personification of a blacksmith.

=Bubona= (Buboʹna), goddess of herdsmen, one of the rural divinities.

=Byblis= (Bybʹlis). A niece of Sol, mentioned by Ovid. She shed so
many tears for unrequited love that she was turned into a fountain.

=Cabiri= (Cabʹiri). The mysterious rites connected with the worship of
these deities were so obscene that most writers refer to them as
secrets which it was unlawful to reveal.

=Cacodaemon= (Cacʹodaeʹmon). The Greek name of an evil spirit.

=Cacus= (Caʹcus), a three-headed monster and robber.

=Cadmus= (Cadʹmus), one of the earliest of the Greek demi-gods. He was the reputed inventor of letters, and his alphabet consisted of sixteen letters. It was Cadmus who slew the Boeotian dragon, and sowed its teeth in the ground, from each of which sprang up an armed man.

=Caduceus= (Caduʹceus). The rod carried by Mercury. It has two winged serpents entwined round the top end. It was supposed to possess the power of producing sleep, and Milton refers to it in _Paradise Lost_ as the "opiate rod."

=Calisto= (Calisʹto), an Arcadian nymph, who was turned into a she-bear by Jupiter. In that form she was hunted by her son Arcas, who would have killed her had not Jupiter turned him into a he-bear. The
nymph and her son form the constellations known as the Great Bear and Little Bear.

=Calliope= (Calliʹope). The Muse who presided over epic poetry and rhetoric. She is generally depicted using a stylus and wax tablets, the ancient writing materials.

=Calpe= (Calʹpe). One of the pillars of Hercules.

=Calypso= (Calypʹso) was queen of the island of Ogygia, on which Ulysses was wrecked, and where he was persuaded to remain seven years.

=Camillus= (Camilʹlus), a name of Mercury, from his office of minister to the gods.

=Canache= (Canʹache). The name of one of Actaeon's hounds.

=Capis= (Capʹis) or =Capula= (Capʹula). A peculiar cup with ears, used in drinking the health of the deities.

=Capitolinus= (Capitoliʹnus). A name of Jupiter, from the Capitoline hill, on the top of which a temple was built and dedicated to him.

=Capripedes= (Capʹriʹpedes). Pan, the Egipans, the Satyrs, and Fauns, were so called from having goat's feet.

=Caprotina= (Caprotiʹna). A name of Juno.

=Cassandra= (Cassanʹdra), a daughter of Priam and Hecuba, who was granted by Apollo the power of seeing into futurity, but having offended that god he prevented people from believing her predictions.

=Cassiopeia= (Cassiopeʹia). The Ethiopian queen who set her beauty in comparison with that of the Nereides, who thereupon chained her to a rock and left her to be devoured by a sea-monster, but she was delivered by Perseus. See Andromeda.

=Castalia= (Castaʹlia). One of the fountains in Mount Parnassus, sacred to the Muses.

=Castalides= (Castaʹliʹdes), a name of the Muses, from the fountain Castalia or Castalius.

=Castor= (Casʹtor), son of Jupiter and Leda, twin brother of Pollux, noted for his skill in horsemanship. He went with Jason in quest of the Golden Fleece.

=Cauther= (Cauʹther), in Mohammedan mythology, is the lake of paradise, whose waters are as sweet as honey, as cold as snow, and as clear as crystal; and any believer who tastes thereof is said to
thirst no more.

=Celeno= (Celʹeno) was one of the Harpies, progenitor of Zephyrus, the west wind.

=Centaur= (Cenʹtaur). A huntsman who had the forepart like a man, and the remainder of the body like a horse. The Centauri lived in Thessaly.

=Cephalus= (Cepʹhalus) was married to Procris, whom he accidentally slew by shooting her while she was secretly watching him, he thinking she was a wild beast. Cephalus was the type of constancy.

=Ceraunius= (Cerauʹnius). A Greek name of Jupiter, meaning The Fulminator, from his thunderbolts.

=Cerberus= (Cerʹberus). Pluto's famous three-headed dog, which guarded the gate of the infernal regions, preventing the living from entering, and the inhabitants from going out.
=Ceres= (Ceʹres), daughter of Saturn, the goddess of agriculture, and of the fruits of the earth. She taught Triptolemus how to grow corn, and sent him to teach the inhabitants of the earth. She was known by the names of Magna Dea, Bona Dea, Alma Mammosa, and Thesmorphonis.
Ceres was the mother of Proserpine. See Ambarvalia.

=Cestus= (Cesʹtus), the girdle of Venus, which excited irresistible affection.

=Chaos= (Chaʹos) allegorically represented the confused mass of matter supposed to have existed before the creation of the world, and out of which the world was formed.

=Charon= (Charʹon) was the son of Nox and Erebus. He was the ferryman who conveyed the spirits of the dead, in a boat, over the rivers Acheron and Styx to the Elysian Fields. "Charon's toll" was a coin
put into the hands of the dead with which to pay the grim ferryman.

=Charybdis= (Charybʹdis). A dangerous whirlpool on the coast of Sicily. Personified, it was supposed to have been a woman who plundered travelers, but was at last killed by Hercules. Scylla and
Charybdis are generally spoken of together to represent alternative dangers.

=Chemos= (Cheʹmos). The Moabitish god of war.

=Chimaera= (Chimaeʹra). A wild illusion, personified in the monster slain by Bellerophon. It had the head and breast of a lion, the body of a goat, and the tail of a serpent. It used to vomit fire.

=Chiron= (Chiʹron), the centaur who taught Achilles hunting, music, and the use of medicinal herbs. Jupiter placed him among the stars, where he appears as Sagittarius, the Archer.

=Chloris= (Chloʹris). The Greek name of Flora, the goddess of flowers.

=Chronos= (Chroʹnos). Time, the Grecian name of Saturn.

=Circe= (Cirʹce), daughter of the Sun. The knowledge of poisonous herbs enabled her to destroy her husband, the King of the Sarmatians, for which act she was banished. When Ulysses landed at Aeaea, where she lived, she turned all his followers into swine.

=Cisseta= (Cisseʹta). The name of one of Actaeon's hounds.

=Citherides= (Citherʹides). A name of the Muses, from Mount Citheron.

=Clio= (Cliʹo). One of the Muses, daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne.
She presided over history.

=Cloacina= (Cloaciʹna). The Roman goddess of sewers.

=Clotho= (Cloʹtho) was one of the Fates. She was present at births, and held the distaff from which was spun the thread of life. See Atropos and Lachesis.

=Clowns of Lycia, The= (Lyʹcia), were changed into frogs by Latona, because they refused to allow her to drink at one of their streamlets.

=Cluacina= (Cluʹaciʹna). A name of Venus, given to her at the time of the reconciliation of the Romans and the Sabines, which was ratified near a statue of the goddess.

=Clytemnestra= (Clyʹtemnesʹtra), wife of Agamemnon, slew her husband and married Aegisthus. She attempted to kill her son Orestes, but he was delivered by his sister Electra, who sent him away to Strophius. He afterward returned and slew both Clytemnestra and Aegisthus.

=Clytie= (Clytʹie). A nymph who got herself changed into a sunflower because her love of Apollo was unrequited. In the form of this flower she is still supposed to be turning toward Sol, a name of Apollo.

=Cocytus= (Cocyʹtus), the river of Lamentation. One of the five rivers
of the infernal regions.

=Coeculus= (Coeʹculus), a violent robber, was a son of Vulcan.

=Coelus= (Coeʹlus), also called Uranus (or Heaven), was the most ancient of the gods.

=Coena Saliaris= (Coeʹna Saliaʹris), see Ancilia.

=Collina= (Colliʹna) was one of the rural deities, the goddess of hills.

=Comus= (Coʹmus) was the god of revelry. He presided over entertainments and feasts.

=Concord= (Conʹcord). The symbol of Concord was two right hands joined, and a pomegranate.

=Concordia= (Concorʹdia). The goddess of peace. One of the oldest Roman goddesses. She is represented as holding a horn of plenty in one hand, and in the other a scepter, from which fruit is sprouting forth.

=Consualia= (Consuʹalia). Games sacred to Neptune.

=Consus= (Conʹsus). A name given to Neptune as being the god of counsel.

=Cophetua= (Copheʹtua). A legendary king of Africa, who disliked women, but ultimately fell in love with a "beggar-maid," as mentioned in _Romeo and Juliet_.

=Copia= (Coʹpia), the goddess of plenty.

=Coran= (Coʹran). One of Actaeon's hounds was so named.

=Coronis= (Corʹonis), was a consort of Apollo and mother of Aesculapius. Another Coronis was daughter of a king of Phocis, and was changed by Athena into a crow.

=Corybantes= (Corybanʹtes) were priests of Cybele. They obtained the name because they were in the habit of striking themselves in their dances.

=Corydon= (Coryʹdon). A silly love-sick swain mentioned by Virgil.

=Corythaix= (Coryʹthaix). A name given to Mars, meaning Shaker of the
Helmet.

=Cotytto= (Cotytʹto). The Athenian goddess of immodesty.

=Cupid= (Cuʹpid), the god of love, was the son of Jupiter and Venus. He is represented as a naked, winged boy, with a bow and arrows, and a torch. When he grew up to be a man he married Psyche.

=Cybele= (Cyʹbele). The mother of the gods, and hence called Magna Mater. She was wife of Saturn. She is sometimes referred to under the names of Ceres, Rhea, Ops, and Vesta. She is represented as riding in
a chariot drawn by lions. In one hand she holds a scepter, and in the other a key. On her head is a castelated crown, to denote that she was the first to protect castles and walls with towers.

=Cyclops= (Cyʹclops) or =Cyclopes= (Cyʹclopes) were the gigantic, one-eyed workmen of Vulcan, who made Jove's thunderbolts. Hesiod gives their names as Arges, Brontes, and Steropes.

=Cygnus= (Cygʹnus), the bosom friend of Phaeton. He died of grief on the death of his friend, and was turned into a swan.

=Cyllaros= (Cyllʹaros), one of Castor's horses. The color is mentioned as being coal-black, with white legs and tail. See Cillaros.

=Cyllo= (Cylʹlo). The name of one of Actaeon's hounds, which was lame.

=Cyllopotes= (Cyllopʹotes). A name given to one of Actaeon's hounds which limped.

=Cynosure= (Cynʹosure). One of the nurses of Jupiter, turned by the god into a conspicuous constellation.

=Cyparissus= (Cyparisʹsus). A boy of whom Apollo was very fond; and when he died he was changed, at Apollo's intercession, into a cypresstree, the branches of which typify mourning.

=Cypress= (Cyʹpress), see Cyparissus.

=Cypria= (Cyʹpria). A name of Venus, because she was worshiped in the island of Cyprus.

=Cythera= (Cythʹera). A name of Venus, from the island to which she was wafted in the shell.

=Dactyli= (Dactyʹli) were priests of Cybele. They were given the name, because, like the fingers, they were ten in number.

=Daedalus= (Daedʹalus) was a great architect and sculptor. He invented the wedge, the axe, the level, and the gimlet, and was the first to use sails. Daedalus also constructed the famous labyrinth for Minos,
King of Crete. See Icarus.

=Dagon= (Daʹgon). A god of the Philistines, half man half fish, like the mermaid. Milton describes him as "Upward man and downward fish." =Danae= (Danʹae) was a daughter of Acrisius and Eurydice. She had a son by Jupiter, who was drifted out to sea in a boat, but was saved by Polydectes and educated.

=Danaides= (Danaʹides), see Danaus.

=Danaus= (Danaʹus), King of Argos, was the father of fifty daughters, who, all but one, at the command of their father, slew their husbands directly after marriage. For this crime they were condemned to the
task of forever trying to draw water with vessels without any bottoms. See Hypermnestra.

=Dancing=, see Terpsichore.

=Dangers=, see Charybdis, also Scylla.

=Daphne= (Daphʹne). The goddess of the earth. Apollo courted her, but she fled from him, and was, at her own request, turned into a laurel tree.

=Dardanus= (Darʹdanus), a son of Jupiter, who built the city of Dardania, and by some writers was accounted the founder of Troy.

=Deianira= (Deianiʹra), daughter of Oeneus, was wife of Hercules. See Hercules.

=Delius= (Deʹlius), a name of Apollo, from the island in which he was born.

=Delphi= (Delʹphi). A town on Mount Parnassus, famous for its oracle and for a temple of Apollo. See Delphos.

=Delphicus= (Delʹphicus). A name of Apollo, from Delphi.

=Delphos= (Delʹphos), the place where the temple was built, from which the oracle of Apollo was given.

=Demarus= (Deʹmarus). The Phoenician name of Jupiter.

=Demogorgon= (Deʹmogorʹgon) was the tyrant genius of the soil or earth, the life and support of plants. He was depicted as an old man covered with moss, and was said to live underground. He is sometimes
called the king of the elves and fays.

  =Deucalion= (Deucaʹlion), one of the demi-gods, son of Prometheus and Pyrra. He and his wife, by making a ship, survived the deluge which Jupiter sent on the earth, circa 1503 B.C.

=Devil=, see Dahak, Daityas, and Obambou.

=Diana= (Diʹana), goddess of hunting and of chastity. She was the sister of Apollo, and daughter of Jupiter and Latona. She was known among the Greeks as Diana or Phoebe, and was honored as a triform
goddess. As a celestial divinity she was called Luna; as a terrestrial Diana or Dictynna; and in the infernal regions Hecate.
=Dictynna= (Dictynʹna), a Greek name of Diana as a terrestrial
goddess.

=Dido= (Diʹdo). A daughter of Belus, King of Tyre. It was this princess who bought a piece of land in Africa as large as could be encompassed by a bullock's hide, and when the purchase was completed,
cut the hide into strips, and so secured a large tract of land. Here she built Carthage; and Virgil tells that when Aeneas was shipwrecked on the neighboring coast she received him with every kindness, and at
last fell in love with him. But Aeneas did not reciprocate her affections, and this so grieved her that she stabbed herself. A tale is told in _Facetiae Cantabrigienses_ of Professor Porson, who being
one of a set party, the conversation turned on the subject of punning, when Porson observing that he could pun on any subject, a person present defied him to do so on the Latin gerunds, _di_, _do_, _dum_,
which, however, he immediately did in the following admirable couplet:

=Dies Pater= (Diʹes Paʹter), or Father of the Day, a name of Jupiter.

=Dii Selecti= (Dii Selecʹti) composed the second class of gods. They were Coelus, Saturn, Genius, Oreus, Sol, Bacchus, Terra, and Luna.

=Dindymene= (Dinʹdymeʹne). A name of Cybele, from a mountain where she
was worshiped.

=Diomedes= (Diomeʹdes), the cruel tyrant of Thrace, who fed his mares on the flesh of his guests. He was overcome by Hercules, and himself
given to the same horses as food.

=Dione= (Dioʹne). A poetic name of Venus.

=Dionysia= (Dionyʹsia) were festivals in honor of Bacchus.

=Dionysius= (Dionyʹsius). A name of Bacchus, either from his father Jupiter (Dios), or from his nurses, the nymphs called Nysae.

=Dioscuri= (Diosʹcuri). Castor and Pollux, the sons of Jupiter.

=Dirae= (Diʹrae). A name of the Furies.

=Dis.= A name of Pluto, god of hell, signifying riches.

=Discordia= (Discorʹdia), sister of Nemesis, the Furies, and Death, was driven from heaven for having sown discord among the gods.

=Dithyrambus.= A surname of Bacchus.

=Dodona= (Dodoʹna) was a celebrated oracle of Jupiter.

=Dodonaeus= (Dodonaeʹus). A name of Jupiter, from the city of Dodona.

=Dolabra= (Dolaʹbra). The knife used by the priests to cut up the sacrifices.

=Doris= (Doʹris) was daughter of Oceanus, and sister of Nereus, two of the marine deities. From these two sisters sprang the several tribes of water nymphs.

=Doto= (Doʹto). One of the Nereids or sea nymphs.

=Draco= (Draʹco). One of Actaeon's hounds.

=Dragon=, seven-headed, see Geryon.

=Dryads= (Dryʹads) were rural deities, the nymphs of the forests, to whom their votaries offered oil, milk, and honey.

=Eacus= (Eʹacus), son of Jupiter and Egina, one of the judges of the infernal regions, who was appointed to judge the Europeans. See Aeacus.

=Echidna= (Echidʹna). A woman having a serpent's tail. She was the reputed mother of Chimaera, and also of the many-headed dog Orthos, of the three-hundred-headed dragon of the Hesperides, of the Colchian dragon, of the Sphinx, of Cerberus, of Scylla, of the Gorgons, of the Lernaean Hydra, of the vulture that gnawed away the liver of Prometheus, and also of the Nemean lion; in fact, the mother of all adversity and tribulation.

=Echnobas= (Echnoʹbas), one of Actaeon's hounds.

=Echo= (Echʹo) was a nymph who fell in love with Narcissus. But when he languished and died she pined away from grief and died also, preserving nothing but her voice, which repeats every sound that
reaches her. Another fable makes Echo a daughter of Air and Tellus.She was partly deprived of speech by Juno, being allowed only to reply to questions.

=Egeon.= A giant sea-god, who assisted the Titans against Jupiter.

=Egeria= (Egeʹria). A nymph who is said to have suggested to Numa all his wise laws. She became his wife, and at his death was so disconsolate, and shed so many tears, that Diana changed her into a
fountain.

=Egil= (Eʹgil). The Vulcan of northern mythology.

=Egipans= (Egipʹans) were rural deities who inhabited the forests and mountains, the upper half of the body being like that of a man, and the lower half like a goat.

=Egis= (Eʹgis) was the shield of Minerva. It obtained its name because it was covered with the skin of the goat Amalthaea, which nourished Jupiter. See Aegis.

=Eleusinian Mysteries= (Eleusinʹian). Religious rites in honor of Ceres, performed at Eleusis, in Attica.

=Elysium= (Elysʹium), or the =Elysian Fields=. The temporary abode of the just in the infernal regions.

=Empyrean, The= (Empyreʹan). The fifth heaven, the seat of the heathen deity.

=Endymion= (Endymʹion). A shepherd, who acquired from Jupiter the faculty of being always young. One of the lovers of Diana.

=Enyo= was the Grecian name of Bellona, the goddess of war and cruelty.

=Eos= (Eʹos). The Grecian name of Aurora.

=Eous= (Eʹous). One of the four horses which drew the chariot of Sol, the sun. The word is Greek, and means red.

=Ephialtes= (Ephʹialʹtes). A giant who lost his right eye in an encounter with Hercules, and the left eye was destroyed by Apollo.

=Erato= (Erʹato). One of the Muses, the patroness of light poetry; she presided over the triumphs and complaints of lovers, and is generally represented as crowned with roses and myrtle, and holding a
lyre in her hand.

=Erebus= (Erʹebus), son of Chaos, one of the gods of Hades, sometimes alluded to as representing the infernal regions.

=Ergatis= (Ergaʹtis). A name given to Minerva. It means the work-woman, and was given to the goddess because she was credited with having invented spinning and weaving.

=Erictheus= (Ericʹtheus), fourth King of Athens, was the son of Vulcan.

=Erinnys= (Erinʹnys). A Greek name of the Furies. It means Disturber of the Mind.

=Erisichthon= (Erisichʹthon) was punished with perpetual hunger because he defiled the groves of Ceres, and cut down one of the sacred oaks.

=Eros= (Erʹos). The Greek god of love.

=Erostratus= (Erosʹtratus). The rascal who burnt the temple of Diana at Ephesus, thereby hoping to make his name immortal.

=Erycina= (Erycʹina). A name of Venus, from Mount Eryx in Sicily.

=Erythreos= (Erythreʹos). The Grecian name of one of the horses of
Sol's chariot.

=Ethon= (Eʹthon), one of the horses who drew the chariot of Sol—the sun. The word is Greek, and signifies hot.

=Etna= (Etʹna). A volcanic mountain, beneath which, according to Virgil, there is buried the giant Typhon, who breathes forth devouring flames.

=Eudromos= (Euʹdromos). The name of one of Actaeon's hounds.

=Eulalon= (Euʹlalon), one of the names of Apollo.

=Eumenides= (Eumeʹnides), a name of the Furies, meaning mild, and referring to the time when they were approved by Minerva.

=Euphrosyne= (Euphroʹsyne), one of the three Graces, see Graces.

=Eurus= (Euʹrus). The east wind. A son of Aeolus.

=Euryale= (Euryʹale) was one of the Gorgons, daughter of Phorcus and Ceto.

=Eurydice= (Eurydʹice), wife of Orpheus, who was killed by a serpent on her wedding night.

=Eurythion= (Eurythʹion). A seven-headed dragon. See Geryon.

=Euterpe= (Euʹterpe), one of the Muses, the patroness of instrumental music. The word means agreeable.

=Euvyhe= (Euʹvyhe), an expression meaning "Well done, son." Jupiter so frequently addressed his son Bacchus by those words that the phrase at last became one of his names.

=Fame= was a poetical deity, represented as having wings and blowing a trumpet. A temple was dedicated to her by the Romans.

=Fates=, or =Parcae=, were the three daughters of Necessity. Their names were Clotho, who held the distaff; Lachesis, who turned the spindle; and Atropos, who cut the thread with the fatal shears.

=Faun.= A rural divinity, half man and half goat. They were very similar to the Satyrs. The Fauns attended the god Pan, and the Satyrs attended Bacchus.

=Favonius= (Favoʹnius). The wind favorable to vegetation, that is, Zephyr--the west wind.

=Febris= (Feʹbris) (fever), one of the evil deities, was worshiped that she might not do harm.

=Februus= (Febʹruus). A name of Pluto, from the part of the funeral rites which consisted of purifications.

=Feronia= (Feroʹnia), the Roman goddess of orchards, was patroness of enfranchised slaves. Some authors think Feronia is the same as Juno.

=Fides= (Fiʹdes), the goddess of faith and honesty, and a temple in the Capitol of Rome.

=Fleece, Golden=, see Golden Fleece, Argonauts, and Jason.

=Flora= (Floʹra), goddess of flowers and gardens, was wife of Zephyrus. She enjoyed perpetual youth. Her Grecian name was Chloris.

=Floralia= (Floraʹlia) were licentious games instituted in honor of the goddess Flora.

=Fortuna= (Fortuʹna), the goddess of fortune, had a temple erected to her by Servius Tullius. She was supposed to be able to bestow riches or poverty on mankind, and was esteemed one of the most potent of the ancient goddesses. She is usually represented as standing on a wheel, with a bandage over her eyes, and holding a cornucopia.

=Fraud=, one of the evil deities, was represented as a goddess with a human face and a serpent's body, and at the end of her tail was a scorpion's sting. She lived in the river Cocytus, and nothing but her
head was ever seen.

=Furies, The=, were the three daughters of Acheron and Nox. They were the punishers of evil-doers. Their names were Tisiphone, Megaera, and Alecto, and were supposed to personify rage, slaughter, and envy.

=Galataea= (Galataeʹa). A sea nymph. Polyphemus, one of the Cyclops, loved her, but she disdained his attentions and became the lover of Acis, a Sicilian shepherd.

=Gallantes= (Gallanʹtes), madmen, from Galli (which see).

=Galli= (Galʹli) were priests of Cybele who used to cut their arms with knives when they sacrificed, and acted so like madmen that demented people got the name of Gallantes.


=Ganymede=, a beautiful Phrygian youth, son of Tros, King of Troy. He succeeded Hebe in the office of cup-bearer to Jupiter. He is generally represented sitting on the back of a flying eagle.

=Gautama= (Gauʹtama) (Buddha). The chief deity of Burmah.

=Genii= were domestic divinities. Every man was supposed to have two of these genii accompanying him; one brought him happiness, the other misery.

=Genitor= (Genʹitor). A Lycian name of Jupiter.

=Geryon= (Geʹryon) was a triple-bodied monster who lived at Gades, where his numerous flocks were guarded by Orthos, a two-headed dog, and by Eurythion, a seven-headed dragon. These guardians were
destroyed by Hercules, and the cattle taken away.

=Girdle=, see Cestus (Venus's).

=Glaucus= (Glauʹcus) was a fisherman who became a sea-god through eating a sea-weed, which he thought invigorated the fishes and might strengthen him.

=Glaukopis= (Glaukoʹpis). A name given to Minerva, because she had blue eyes.

=Gnomes= (Gnoʹmes), a name given by Plato to the invisible deities who were supposed to inhabit the earth.

=Gnossis= (Gnosʹsis), a name given to Ariadne, from the city of Gnossus, in Crete.

=Golden Fleece, The=, was a ram's hide, sometimes described as white,and at other times as purple and golden. It was given to Phryxus, who carried it to Colchis, where King Aeetes entertained Phryxus, and the hide was hung up in the grove of Mars. Jason and forty-nine companions fetched back the golden fleece. See Argonauts.

=Gorgons, The= (Gorʹgons), were three sisters, named Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa. They petrified every one they looked at. Instead of hair their heads were covered with vipers. Perseus conquered them, and cut off the head of Medusa, which was placed on the shield of Minerva, and
all who fixed their eyes thereon were turned into stone.

=Graces, The=, were the attendants of Venus. Their names were, Aglaia, so called from her beauty and goodness; Thalia, from her perpetual freshness; and Euphrosyne, from her cheerfulness. They are generally depicted as three cheerful maidens with hands joined, and either nude or only wearing transparent robes--the idea being that kindnesses, as personified by the Graces, should be done with sincerity and candor, and without disguise. They were supposed to teach the duties of
gratitude and friendship, and they promoted love and harmony among mankind.


=Gradivus= (Gradʹivus). A name given to Mars by the Romans. It meant the warrior who defended the city against all external enemies.

=Gragus= (Graʹgus). The name by which Jupiter was worshiped in Lycia.

=Hades= (Haʹdes). The Greek name of Pluto, the god of hell, the word signifying hidden, dark, and gloomy; the underworld, or infernal regions; sometimes written _Ades_.

=Halcyone= (Halcyʹone) (or =Alcyone=), one of the Pleiades, was a daughter of Aeolus.

=Halcyons= (Halcyʹons) were sea birds, supposed to be the Greek kingfishers. They made their nests on the waves, and during the period of incubation the sea was always calm. Hence the modern term Halcyon Days.

=Hamadryades= (Hamadryʹades) were wood-nymphs, who presided over trees.

=Harpies, The= (Harʹpies), (literally, snatchers, demons of destruction, or, in the modern sense, extortioners). They were monsters, half-birds, half-maidens, having the heads and breasts of
women, the bodies of birds, and the claws of lions. Their names were Aello, Ocypete, and Celeno. They were loathsome creatures, living in filth, and poisoning everything they came in contact with.

=Harvest=, see Segetia. A Roman divinity, invoked by the husbandman that the harvest might be plentiful.

=Hebe= (Heʹbe), daughter of Zeus (Jupiter) and Hera (Juno), was the goddess of youth. She was cup-bearer to Jupiter and the gods, until she had an awkward fall at a festival, causing her to alight in an
indecent posture, which so displeased Jupiter that she was deprived of her office, and Ganymede was appointed in her stead.

=Hecate= (Hecʹate). There were two goddesses known by this name, but the one generally referred to in modern literature is Hecate, or Proserpine, the name by which Diana was known in the infernal regions.
In heaven her name was Luna, and her terrestrial name was Diana. She was a moon-goddess, and is generally represented in art with three bodies, standing back to back, a torch, a sword, and a lance in each right hand.

=Hecuba= (Hecʹuba). The wife of Priam, king of Troy, and mother of Paris. Taken captive in the Trojan war, she fell to the lot of Ulysses after the destruction of Troy, and was afterwards changed into a
hound.

=Helena= (Helʹena) when a child was so beautiful that Theseus and Perithous stole her, but she was restored by Castor and Pollux. She became the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta, but eloped with Paris,
and thus caused the Trojan War. After the death of Paris she married Deiphobus, his brother, and then betrayed him to Menelaus. She was afterward tied to a tree and strangled by order of Polyxo, king of
Rhodes.

=Heliades, The= (Heʹliades), were the daughters of Sol, and the sisters of Phaeton, at whose death they were so sad that they stood mourning till they became metamorphosed into poplar trees, and their
tears were turned into amber.

=Helicon= (Helʹicon). A mountain in Boeotia sacred to the Muses, from which place the fountain Hippocrene flowed.

=Heliconiades= (Helicoʹniades). A name given to the Muses, from Mount Helicon.

=Helios= (Heʹlios). The Grecian sun-god, or charioteer of the sun, who went home every evening in a golden boat which had wings.

=Heliotrope= (Helʹiotrope). Clytie was turned into this flower by Apollo. See Clytie.

=Helle= (Helʹle) was drowned in the sea, into which she fell from off the back of the golden ram, on which she and Phryxus were escaping from the oppression of their stepmother Ino. The episode gave the name of the Hellespont to the part of the sea where Helle was drowned, and it is now called the Dardanelles. She was the daughter of Athamas and Nephele.

=Hellespontiacus= (Hellespontiaʹcus). A title of Priapus.

=Hephaestus= (Hephaesʹtus). The Greek Vulcan, the smith of the gods.

=Hera= (Heʹra). The Greek name of Juno.

=Heracles= (Herʹacles) is the same as Hercules.

=Hercules= (Herʹcules) was the son of Jupiter and Alcmena. The goddess Juno hated him from his birth, and sent two serpents to kill him, but though only eight months old he strangled them. As he got older he was set by his master Eurystheus what were thought to be twelve impossible tasks which have long been known as the "Twelve Labors of Hercules."
They were:

_First_, To slay the Nemean Lion.

_Second_, To destroy the Hydra which infested the marshes of Lerna.

_Third_, To bring to Eurystheus the Arcadian Stag with the golden
horns and brazen hoofs.

_Fourth_, To bring to his master the Boar of Erymanthus.

_Fifth_, To cleanse the stable of King Augeas, in which 3,000 oxen
had been kept for thirty years, but had never been cleaned out.

_Sixth_, To destroy the Stymphalides, terrible carnivorous birds.

_Seventh_, To capture the Bull which was desolating Crete.

_Eighth_, To capture the mares of Diomedes, which breathed fire from
their nostrils, and ate human flesh.

_Ninth_, To procure the girdle of Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons.

_Tenth_, To bring to Eurystheus the flesh-eating oxen of Geryon, the
monster king of Gades.

_Eleventh_, To bring away some of the golden apples from the garden of
the Hesperides.

_Twelfth_, To bring up from Hades the three-headed dog, Cerberus.

All these tasks he successfully accomplished, and, besides, he assisted the gods in their wars with the giants. Several other wonderful feats are mentioned under other headings, as Antaeus, Cacus,
etc. His death was brought about through his endeavors to preserve Deianira from the attacks of Nessus, the centaur, whom he killed. The centaur, before he expired, gave his mystic tunic to Deianira, who in turn gave it to Hercules, and he put it on, but his doing so brought on an illness of which he could not be cured. In a fit of desperation he cast himself into a funeral pile on Mount Oeta; but Jupiter had
him taken to heaven in a four-horse chariot, and only the mortal part of Hercules was consumed.

=Hermae= (Herʹmae) were statues of Hermes (Mercury), which were set up in Athens for boundaries, and as direction marks for travelers.

=Hermanubis= (Herʹmanuʹbis), see Anubis.

=Hermathenae= (Hermatheʹnae) were statues of Mercury and Minerva placed together.

=Hermes= (Herʹmes). A Greek name of the god Mercury.

=Hermione= (Hermiʹone), daughter of Mars and Venus, who was turned into a serpent, and allowed to live in the Elysian Fields. There was another Hermione, daughter of Menelaus and Helen; she was betrothed to Orestes, but was carried away by Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles.

=Hero= (Heʹro). A priestess of Venus, with whom Leander was so enamored that he swam across the Hellespont every night to visit her, but at last was drowned; when Hero saw the fate of her lover she threw herself into the sea and was also drowned.

=Hesperides= (Hesperʹides). Three daughters of Hesperus, King of Italy. They were appointed to guard the golden apples which Juno gave Jupiter on their wedding day. See Hercules.

=Hesperus= (Hesʹperus), brother of Atlas, was changed into the evening star.

=Hestia= (Hesʹtia). The Greek name of Vesta, the goddess of the hearth.

=Hippocampus= (Hippocamʹpus). The name of Neptune's favorite horse, a fabulous marine animal, half horse and half fish.

=Hippocrenides= (Hippocreʹnides), a name of the Muses, from the fountain of Hippocrene (the horse fountain), which was formed by a kick of the winged horse Pegasus.

=Hippolyte= (Hippolʹyte), queen of the Amazons, daughter of Mars. Her father gave her a famous girdle, which Hercules was required to procure (see Hercules). She was conquered by Hercules, and given by
him in marriage to Theseus.

=Hippolytus= (Hippolʹytus) was the son of Theseus and Hippolyte; he was killed by a fall from a chariot, but was raised to life again by Diana, or, as some say, by Aesculapius.

=Hippona= (Hippoʹna) was a rural divinity, the goddess of horses.

=Horae= (Hoʹrae) were the daughters of Sol and Chronis, the goddesses of the seasons.

=Hortensis= (Hortenʹsis), a name of Venus, because she looked after plants and flowers in gardens.

=Hostilina= (Hostilʹina). A rural divinity; goddess of growing corn.

=Hyacinthus= (Hyacinʹthus) was a boy greatly loved by Apollo; but he was accidentally slain by him with a quoit. Apollo caused to spring from his blood the flower Hyacinth.

=Hyades= (Hyʹades) were seven daughters of Atlas and Aethra, and they formed a constellation which, when it rises with the sun, threatens rain.

=Hydra= (Hyʹdra). A monster serpent, which had a hundred heads. It was slain by Hercules. See Hercules.

=Hygeia= (Hygeʹia), the goddess of health, was a daughter of Aesculapius and Epione. She was represented as a young woman giving a serpent drink out of a saucer, the serpent being twined round her arm.

=Hylas= (Hyʹlas). A beautiful boy beloved by Hercules. The nymphs were jealous of him, and spirited him away while he was drawing water for Hercules. See Wm. Morris's tragedy, "The Life and Death of Jason."

=Hymen= (Hyʹmen), the Grecian god of marriage, was either the son of Bacchus and Venus, or, as some say, of Apollo and one of the Muses. He was represented as a handsome youth, holding in his hand a burning torch.

=Hyperion= (Hypeʹrion). Son of Coelus and Terra. The model of manly beauty, synonymous with Apollo. The personification of the sun.

=Hypermnestra= (Hypermnesʹtra). One of the fifty daughters of Danaus, who were collectively called the Danaides. She was the one who refused to kill her husband on the wedding night. See Danaus.

=Iacchus= (Iacʹchus). Another name for Bacchus.

=Iapetos= (Iapʹetos). The father of Atlas. See Japetus.

=Icarus= (Icʹarus), son of Daedalus, who with his father made themselves wings with which to fly from Crete to escape the resentment of Minos. The wings were fixed to the shoulders by wax. Icarus flew
too near the sun, and the heat melting the wax, caused the wings to drop off, and he fell into the Aegean or Icarian sea and was drowned.

=Ichnobate= (Ichnobaʹte). One of Actaeon's hounds; the word means tracker.

=Idaea= (Idaeʹa). A name of Cybele, from Mount Ida, where she was worshiped.

=Idaean Mother= (Idaeʹan Mother). Cybele was sometimes so called, in Cyprus, in which there is a grove sacred to Venus.

=Idalia= (Idaʹlia). A name of Venus, from Mount Idalus, in Cyprus, in which there is a grove sacred to Venus.

=Imperator= (Imperaʹtor) was a name of Jupiter, given to him at Praeneste.

=Inachus= (Iʹnachus) was one of the earliest of the demi-gods or heroes, King of Argos.

=Incubus= (Inʹcubus). A Roman name of Pan, meaning The Nightmare. See Innus.

=Indigetes= (Indigʹetes) were deified mortals, gods of the fourth order. They were peculiar to some district.

=Innus= (Inʹnus). A name of Pan, the same as Incubus.

=Ino= (Inʹo), second wife of Athamas, King of Thebes, father of Phryxus and Helle. Ino had two children, who could not ascend the throne while Phryxus and Helle were alive. Ino therefore persecuted
them to such a degree that they determined to escape. They did so on a ram, whose hide became the Golden Fleece (see Phryxus and Helle). Ino destroyed herself, and was changed by Neptune into a sea-goddess.

=Inoa= (Inoʹa) were festivals in memory of Ino.

=Io= (Iʹo) was a daughter of Inachus, and a priestess of Juno at Argos. Jupiter courted her, and was detected by Juno, when the god turned Io into a beautiful heifer. Juno demanded the beast of Jupiter,
and set the hundred-eyed Argus to watch her. Jupiter persuaded Mercury to destroy Argus, and Io was set at liberty, and restored to human shape. Juno continued her persecutions, and Io had to wander from place to place till she came to Egypt, where she became wife of King Osiris, and won such good opinions from the Egyptians that after her death she was worshiped as the goddess Isis.

=Iolaus= (Iolaʹus), son of Iphicles, assisted Hercules in conquering the Hydra, by burning with hot irons the place where the heads were cut off; and for his assistance he was restored to youth by Hebe.
Lovers used to go to his monument at Phocis and ratify their vows of fidelity.

=Iphicles= (Iphʹicles) was twin brother of Hercules, and father of Iolaus.

=Iphigenia= (Iphigeniʹa) was a daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra. Agamemnon made a vow to Diana, which involved the sacrifice of Iphigenia, but just at the critical moment she was carried to heaven, and a beautiful goat was found on the altar in her place.

=Iris= (Iʹris), daughter of Thaumas and Electra, was the attendant of Juno, and one of the messengers of the gods. Her duty was to cut the thread which detained expiring souls. She is the personification of
the rainbow.

=Itys= (Iʹtys) was killed by his mother Procne when six years old, and given to his father Tereus, a Thracian of Daulis, as food. The gods were so enraged at this that they turned Itys into a pheasant, Procne into a swallow, and Tereus into a hawk.

=Ixion= (Ixiʹon), the son of Phlegyas, King of the Lapithae. For attempting to produce thunder, Jupiter cast him into hell, and had him bound to a wheel, surrounded with serpents, which is forever turning
over a river of fire.

=Jani= (Jaʹni) was a place in Rome where there were three statues of Janus, and it was a meeting-place for usurers and creditors.

=Janitor= (Jaʹnitor). A title of Janus, from the gates before the doors of private houses being called Januae.

=Janus= (Jaʹnus). A king of Italy, said to have been the son of Coelus, others say of Apollo; he sheltered Saturn when he was driven from heaven by Jupiter. Janus presided over highways, gates, and
locks, and is usually represented with two faces, because he was acquainted with the past and the future; or, according to others, because he was taken for the sun, who opens the day at his rising, and
shuts it at his setting. A brazen temple was erected to him in Rome, which was always open in time of war, and closed during peace.

=Japetus= (Japʹetus), son of Coelus and Terra, husband of Clymene. He was looked upon by the Greeks as the father of all mankind. See Iapetos.

=Jason= (Jaʹson), the son of Aeson, king of Iolcos; he was brought up by the centaur Chiron. His uncle Aeeta sent him to fetch the Golden Fleece from Colchis (see Argonauts). He went in the ship Argo with
forty-nine companions, the flower of Greek youth. With the help of Juno they got safe to Colchis, but the King Aeetes promised to restore the Golden Fleece only on condition that the Argonauts performed
certain services. Jason was to tame the wild fiery bulls, and to make them plow the field of Mars; to sow in the ground the teeth of a serpent, from which would spring armed men who would fight against him
who plowed the field of Mars; to kill the fiery dragon which guarded the tree on which the Golden Fleece was hung. The fate of Jason and the rest of the Argonauts seemed certain; but Medea, the king's
daughter, fell in love with Jason, and with the help of charms which she gave him he overcame all the difficulties which the king had put in his way. He took away the Golden Fleece and Medea also. The king
sent his son Absyrtus to overtake the fugitives, but Medea killed him, and strewed his limbs in his father's path, so that he might be delayed in collecting them, and this enabled Jason and Medea to
escape. After a time Jason got tired of Medea, and married Glauce, which cruelty Medea revenged by killing her children before their father's eyes. Jason was accidentally killed by a beam of the ship
Argo falling on him.

=Jocasta= (Jocasʹta) (otherwise Epicasta), wife of Laius, King of Thebes, who in after-life married her own son, Oedipus, not knowing who he was, and, on discovering the fatal mistake, hanged herself.

=Jove.= A very general name of Jupiter.

=Judges in Hell, The=, were Rhadamanthus for Asiatics; Aeacus for Europeans; Minos was the presiding judge in the infernal regions. See Triptolemus.

=Jugatinus= (Jugatinʹus) was one of the nuptial deities.

=Juno= (Juʹno) was the daughter of Saturn and Ops, _alias_ Cybele. She was married to Jupiter, and became queen of all the gods and goddesses, and mistress of heaven and earth. Juno was the mother of
Mars, Vulcan, Hebe, and Lucina. She prompted the gods to conspire against Jupiter, but the attempt was frustrated, and Apollo and Neptune were banished from heaven by Jupiter. Juno is the goddess of
marriage, and the protectress of married women; and she had special regard for virtuous women. In the competition for the celebrated Golden Apple, which Juno, Venus, and Minerva each claimed as the
fairest among the goddesses, Juno was much displeased when Paris gave the apple to Venus. The goddess is generally represented riding in a chariot drawn by peacocks, with a diadem on her head, and a scepter in her hand.

=Jupiter= (Juʹpiter), son of Saturn and Cybele (or Ops), was born on Mount Ida, in Crete, and nourished by the goat Amalthaea. When quite young Jupiter rescued his father from the Titans; and afterward, with the help of Hercules, defeated the giants, the sons of earth, when they made war against heaven. Jupiter was worshiped with great solemnity under various names by most of the heathen nations. The
Africans called him Ammon; the Babylonians, Belus; and the Egyptians, Osiris (see Jove). He is represented as a majestic personage seated on a throne, holding in his hands a scepter and a thunderbolt; at his feet stood a spread eagle.

=Kebla= (Kebʹla). The point of the compass which worshipers look to during their invocations. Thus the Sol or Sun worshipers turn to the east, where the sun rises, and the Mohammedans turn toward Mecca.

=Kederli= (Keʹderli), in Mohammedan mythology, is a god corresponding to the English St. George, and is still invoked by the Turks when they go to war.

=Lachesis= (Lachʹesis). One of the three goddesses of Fate, the Parcae. She spun the thread of life.

=Lacinia= (Lacinʹia). A name of Juno.

=Lactura.= One of the goddesses of growing corn.

=Ladon= (Laʹdon). The dragon which guarded the apples in the garden of the Hesperides. Also the name of one of Actaeon's hounds. Also the river in Arcadia to which Syrinx fled when pursued by Pan, where she was changed into a reed, and where Pan made his first pipe.

=Laelaps= (Laeʹlaps). One of Diana's hunting-dogs, which, while pursuing a wild boar, was petrified. Also the name of one of Actaeon's hounds.

=Lamia= (Lamʹia). An evil deity among the Greeks and Romans, and the great dread of their children, whom she had the credit of constantly enticing away and destroying.

=Lampos= (Lamʹpos). One of Aurora's chariot horses, the other being Phaeton.

=Laocoon= (Laocʹoon). One of the priests of Apollo, who was, with his two sons, strangled to death by serpents, because he opposed the admission of the fatal wooden horse to Troy.

=Laomedon= (Laomʹedon), son of Ilus, a Trojan king. He was famous for having, with the assistance of Apollo and Neptune, built the walls of Troy.

=Lapis= (Lapʹis). The oath stone. The Romans used to swear by Jupiter Lapis.

=Lapithus= (Lapʹithus), son of Apollo. His numerous children were called Lapithae, and they are notorious for their fight with the centaurs at the nuptial feast of Perithous and Hippodamia.

=Lares and Penates= (Laʹres and Penaʹtes) were sons of Mercury and Lara, or, as other mythologists say, of Jupiter and Lamida. They belonged to the lower order of Roman gods, and presided over homes and
families. Their statues were generally fixed within the doors of houses, or near the hearths. Lamps were sacred to them, as symbols of vigilance, and the dog was their sacrifice.

=Latona= (Latoʹna), daughter of Coelus and Phoebe, mother of Apollo and Diana. Being admired so much by Jupiter, Juno was jealous, and Latona was the object of the goddess' constant persecution.

=Leda= (Leʹda) was the mother of Castor and Pollux, their father being Jupiter, in the shape of a swan. After her death she received the name of Nemesis.

=Lemnius= (Lemʹnius). One of the names of Vulcan.

=Lemures= (Lemʹures). The ghosts of departed souls.

=Lenaeus= (Lenaeʹus). One of the names of Bacchus.

=Lerna= (Lerʹna). The lake or swamp near Argos where Hercules conquered the Lernaean Hydra.

=Lethe= (Leʹthe). One of the rivers of the infernal regions, of which the souls of the departed are obliged to drink to produce oblivion or forgetfulness of everything they did or knew while alive on the earth.

=Leucothea= (Leucothʹea). The name of Ino after she was transformed into a sea nymph.

=Levana= (Levaʹna). The deity who presided over new-born infants.

=Liakura= (Liakʹura). Mount Parnassus.

=Liber Pater= (Liʹber Paʹter). A name of Bacchus.

=Libissa= (Libʹissa). Queen of fays and fairies.

=Libitina= (Libitiʹna). A Roman goddess, the chief of the funeral deities.

=Ligea= (Ligeʹa). A Greek syren or sea-nymph, one of the Nereides.

=Lina= (Liʹna). The goddess of the art of weaving.

=Lindor= (Linʹdor). A lover in the shape of a shepherd, like Corydon; a love-sick swain.

=Lotis= (Loʹtis). A daughter of Neptune, who fled from Priapus, and only escaped from him by being transformed into a lotus-plant.

=Lotus-Plant= (Loʹtus-Plant), see Lotis.

=Love=, see Cupid, Eros, Venus.

=Lucian= (Luʹcian). The impersonation of folly, changed into an ass.

=Lucifer= (Luʹcifer). The morning star.

=Lucina= (Luciʹna). The goddess who presides at the birth of children. She was a daughter of Jupiter and Juno, or, according to others, of Latona.

=Luna= (Luʹna). The name of Diana as a celestial divinity. See Diana and Hecate. Also, the Italian goddess of the moon.

=Lupercus= (Luʹpercus), or Pan. The Roman god of fertility; his festival day was 15th February, and the festivals were called Lupercalia.

=Lycaonian Food= (Lycaonʹian). Execrable viands, such as were supplied to Jupiter by Lycaon. To test the divine knowledge of the god he served up human flesh, which Jove discovered, and punished Lycaon
by turning him into a wolf.

=Lycian Clowns= were turned into frogs by Latona or Ceres.

=Lymniades= (Lymniʹades). Nymphs who resided in marshes.

=Lynceus= (Lynʹceus). One of the Argonauts. The personification of sharpsightedness.

=Lyre.= This musical instrument is constantly associated with the doings of the ancient deities. Amphion built the walls of Thebes by the music of his lyre. Arion charmed the dolphins in a similar way.
Hercules broke the head of Linus, his music-master, with the lyre he was learning to use; and Orpheus charmed the most savage beasts, and even the Harpies and gods of the infernal regions, with the enchanting music of the stringed lyre. See Mercury.

=Maenades= (Maenʹades). Priestesses of Bacchus.

=Magicians=, see Telchines.

=Magna Dea= (Magʹna Deʹa), a name of Ceres.

=Maia= (Maʹia). The mother of the Grecian Mercury.

=Mammon= (Mamʹmon). The money god.

=Manes= (Maʹnes). The souls of the departed. The Roman god of funerals and tombs.

=Marina= (Mariʹna). A name of Venus, meaning sea-foam, from her having been formed from the froth of the sea. See Aphrodite.

=Mars=, the god of war, was the son of Jupiter and Juno. Venus was his favorite goddess, and among their children were Cupid, Anteros, and Harmonia. In the Trojan War Mars took the part of the Trojans, but was defeated by Diomedes. The first month of the old Roman year (our March) was sacred to Mars.

=Marsyas= (Marʹsyas). The name of the piper who challenged Apollo to a musical contest, and, being defeated, was flayed to death by the god. He was the supposed inventor of the flute.

=Matura= (Matuʹra). One of the rural deities who protected the growing corn at time of ripening.

=Maximus= (Maxʹimus). One of the appellations of Jupiter, being the greatest of the gods.

=Medea= (Medeʹa). Wife of Jason, chief of the Argonauts. To punish her husband for infidelity, Medea killed two of her children in their father's presence. She was a great sorceress. See Jason.

=Medusa= (Meduʹsa). One of the Gorgons. Minerva changed her beautiful hair into serpents. She was conquered by Perseus, who cut off her head, and placed it on Minerva's shield. Every one who looked at the head was turned into stone.

Ulysses, in the Odyssey, relates that he wished to see more of the inhabitants of Hades, but was afraid, as he says--

=Megaera= (Megʹaera). One of the three Furies--Greek goddesses of vengeance.

=Megale= (Megʹale). A Greek name of Juno, meaning great.

=Mellona= (Melloʹna). One of the rural divinities, the goddess of bees.

=Melpomene= (Melpomʹene). One of the nine Muses, the goddess of tragedy.

=Memnon= (Memʹnon), son of Tithonus and of Eos, who after the death of Hector brought the Aethiopians to the assistance of Priam in the war against Troy.

=Menelaus= (Menelaʹus). A Spartan king, brother of Agamemnon. The elopement of his wife Helen with Paris was the cause of the siege of Troy. See Helena.

=Mercury= (Merʹcury), the son of Jupiter and Maia, was the messenger of the gods, and the conductor of the souls of the dead to Hades. He was the supposed inventor of weights and measures, and presided over orators and merchants. Mercury was accounted a most cunning thief, for he stole the bow and quiver of Apollo, the girdle of Venus, the trident of Neptune, the tools of Vulcan, and the sword of Mars, and he was therefore called the god of thieves. He is the supposed inventor of the lyre, which he exchanged with Apollo for the Caduceus. There was also an Egyptian Mercury under the name of Thoth, or Thaut, who is credited with having taught the Egyptians geometry and hieroglyphics. Hermes is the Greek name of Mercury. In art he is usually represented as having on a winged cap, and with wings on his heels.


=Midas= (Miʹdas). A king of Phrygia, who begged of Bacchus the special gift that everything that he touched might be turned into gold. The request was granted, and as soon as he touched his food it also was turned to gold, and for fear of being starved he was compelled to ask the god to withdraw the power he had bestowed upon him. He was told to bathe in the river Pactolus. He did so, and the sands which he stood on were golden forever after. It was this same king who, being appointed to be judge in a musical contest between Apollo and Pan, gave the satyr the palm; whereupon Apollo, to show his contempt, bestowed on him a pair of asses' ears. This gave rise to the term "Midas-eared" as a synonym for ill-judged, or indiscriminate.

=Milo= (Miʹlo), a celebrated Croton athlete, who is said to have felled an ox with his fist, and to have eaten the beast in one day. His statue is often seen with one hand in the rift of a tree trunk,
out of which he is vainly trying to withdraw it. The fable is, that when he got to be an old man he attempted to split an oak tree, but having lost his youthful vigor, the tree closed on his hand and he was
held a prisoner till the wolves came and devoured him.

=Mimallones= (Mimalloʹnes). The "wild women" who accompanied Bacchus, so called because they mimicked his actions, putting horns on their heads when they took part in his orgies.

=Minerva= (Minerʹva), the goddess of wisdom, war, and the liberal arts, is said to have sprung from the head of Jupiter fully armed for battle. She was a great benefactress of mankind, and patroness of the
fine arts. She was the tutelar deity of the city of Athens. She is also known by the names of Pallas, Parthenos, Tritonia, and Glaukopis. She was very generally worshiped by the ancients, and her temple at
Athens, the Parthenon, still remains. She is represented in statues and pictures as wearing a golden helmet encircled with an olive branch, and a breastplate. In her right hand she carries a lance, and
by her side is the famous aegis or shield, covered with the skin of Amalthaea, the goat which nourished Jupiter; and for the boss of the shield is the head of Medusa. An owl, the emblem of meditation, is on
the left; and a cock, the emblem of courage, on the right. The Elgin Marbles in the British Museum, London, were brought from the Parthenon, her temple at Athens.

=Minos= (Miʹnos). The supreme of the three judges of hell, before whom the spirits of the departed appeared and heard their doom.

=Minotaur= (Minʹotaur). The monster, half man, half bull, which Theseus slew.

=Mithras= (Mithʹras). A Persian divinity, the ruler of the universe, corresponding with the Roman Sol.

=Mnemosyne= (Mnemosʹyne). Mother of the Muses and goddess of memory. Jupiter courted the goddess in the guise of a shepherd.

=Moloch= (Moʹloch). A god of the Phoenicians to whom human victims, principally children, were sacrificed. Moloch is figurative of the influence which impels us to sacrifice that which we ought to cherish most dearly.

=Momus= (Moʹmus). The god of mockery and blame. The god who blamed Jove for not having made a window in man's breast, so that his thoughts could be seen. His bitter jests occasioned his being driven
from heaven in disgrace. He is represented as holding an image of Folly in one hand, and raising a mask from his face with the other. He is also described as the god of mirth or laughter.

=Moneta= (Moneʹta). A name given to Juno by those writers who considered her the goddess of money.

=Moon.= The moon was, by the ancients, called _Hecate_ before and after setting; _Astarte_ when in crescent form; _Diana_ when in full. See Luna.

=Morpheus= (Morʹpheus). The Greek god of sleep and dreams, the son and minister of Somnus.

=Mors.= Death, a daughter of Nox (Night).

=Mountain=, see Atlas, Nymph.

=Mulciber= (Mulʹciber). A name of Vulcan, sometimes spelled Mulcifer, the smelter of metals. See Vulcan.

=Muscarius= (Muscaʹrius). A name given to Jupiter because he kept off the flies from the sacrifices.

=Muses, The= (Muʹses), were nine daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. They presided over the arts and sciences, music and poetry. Their names were, Calliope, Clio, Erato, Thalia, Melpomene, Terpsichore, Euterpe, Polyhymnia, and Urania. They principally resided in Mount Parnassus, at Helicon.

=Naiads, The= (Naiʹads), were beautiful nymphs of human form who
presided over springs, fountains, and wells. They resided in the
meadows by the sides of rivers. Virgil mentions Aegle as being the
fairest of the Naiades.

=Narcissus= (Narcisʹsus), son of Cephisus and the Naiad Liriope, was a
beautiful youth, who was so pleased with the reflection of himself
which he saw in the placid water of a fountain that he could not help
loving it, imagining that it must be some beautiful nymph. His
fruitless endeavors to possess himself of the supposed nymph drove him
to despair, and he killed himself. There sprang from his blood a
flower, which was named after him, Narcissus.

  =Natio= (Naʹtio). A Roman goddess who took care of young infants.

=Nemaean Lion= (Nemaeʹan), see Hercules.

=Nemesis= (Nemʹesis), the goddess of vengeance or justice, was one of
the infernal deities. Her mother was Nox. She was supposed to be
constantly traveling about the earth in search of wickedness, which
she punished with the greatest severity. She is referred to by some
writers under the name of Adrasteia. The Romans always sacrificed to
this goddess before they went to war, because they wished to signify
that they never took up arms but in the cause of justice.

=Nephalia= (Nephaʹlia). Grecian festivals in honor of Mnemosyne, the
mother of the Muses.

=Neptune= (Nepʹtune), god of the sea, was a son of Saturn and Cybele,
and brother to Jupiter and Pluto. He quarreled with Jupiter because he
did not consider that the dominion of the sea was equal to Jupiter's
empire of heaven and earth; and he was banished from the celestial
regions, after having conspired with Pluto to dethrone Jupiter.
Neptune was married to Amphitrite, daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, by
whom he had a son named Triton. He was also father of Polyphemus (one
of the Cyclopes), Phoreus, and Proteus. Neptune is represented as
being seated in a shell chariot, drawn by dolphins or sea-horses, and
surrounded by Tritons and sea-nymphs. He holds in his hand a trident,
with which he rules the waves. Though a marine deity, he was reputed
to have presided over horse-training and horse-races; but he is
principally known as the god of the ocean; and the two functions of
the god are portrayed in the sea horses with which his chariot is
drawn, the fore-half of the animal being a horse, and the hind-half a
dolphin. Ships were also under his protection, and whenever he
appeared on the ocean there was a dead calm.

=Nereides, The= (Nereʹides), were aquatic nymphs. They were daughters
of Nereus and Doris, and were fifty in number. They are generally
represented as beautiful girls riding on dolphins, and carrying
tridents in the right hand or garlands of flowers.

=Nereus= (Nereʹus). A sea deity, husband of Doris. He had the gift of prophecy, and foretold fates; but he had also the power of assuming various shapes, which enabled him to escape from the importunities of those who were anxious to consult him.

=Nessus= (Nesʹsus). The name of the Centaur that was destroyed by Hercules for insulting his wife Deianira. Nessus's blood-smeared robe proved fatal to Hercules.

=Nestor= (Nesʹtor). A grandson of Neptune, his father being Neleus, and his mother Chloris. Homer makes him one of the greatest of the Greek heroes. He was present at the famous battle between the Lapithae and the Centaurs, and took a leading part in the Trojan war.

=Nicephorus= (Nicephʹorus). A name of Jupiter, meaning the bearer of victory.

=Nilus= (Niʹlus), a king of Thebes, who gave his name to the Nile, the great Egyptian river.

=Niobe= (Niʹobe) was a daughter of Tantalus, and is the personification of grief. By her husband Amphion she had seven sons and seven daughters. By the orders of Latona the father and sons were
killed by Apollo, and the daughters (except Chloris) by Diana. Niobe, being overwhelmed with grief, escaped further trouble by being turned into a stone.

=Nomius= (Noʹmius). A law-giver; one of the names of Apollo. This title was also given to Mercury for the part he took in inventing beneficent laws.

=Notus= (Noʹtus). Another name for Auster, the south wind.

=Nox= was the daughter of Chaos, and sister of Erebus and Mors. She personified night, and was the mother of Nemesis and the Fates.

=Nundina= (Nundiʹna). The goddess who took charge of children when they were nine days old--the day (_Nona dies_) on which the Romans named their children.

=Nuptialis= (Nuptiaʹlis). A title of Juno. When the goddess was
invoked under this name the gall of the victim was taken out and
thrown behind the altar, signifying that there should be no gall
(bitterness) or anger between married people.

=Nyctelius= (Nycteʹlius). A name given to Bacchus, because his festivals were celebrated by torchlight.

=Nymphs.= This was a general name for a class of inferior female
deities who were attendants of the gods. Some of them presided over
springs, fountains, wells, woods, and the sea. They are spoken of as
land-nymphs or Naiads, and sea-nymphs or Nereids, though the former
are associated also with fountains and rivers. The Dryads were
forest-nymphs, and the Hamadryads were nymphs who lived among the
oak-trees--the oak being always specially venerated by the ancients.
The mountain-nymphs were called Oreads.

=Nysaeus= (Nyʹsaeus). A name of Bacchus, because he was worshiped at Nysa, a town of Aethiopia.

=Nysus= (Nyʹsus). A king of Megara who was invisible by virtue of a
particular lock of hair. This lock his daughter Scylla cut off, and so
betrayed her father to his enemies. She was changed into a lark, and
the king into a hawk, and he still pursues his daughter, intending to
punish her for her treachery.

=Oannes= (Oanʹnes). An Eastern (Babylonian) god, represented as a
monster, half-man, half-fish. He was said to have taught men the use
of letters in the day-time, and at night to have retired to the depth
of the ocean.

=Oceanides= (Oceanʹides). Sea-nymphs, daughters of Oceanus and Tethys.
Their numbers are variously estimated by different poets; some saying
there were as many as 3,000, while others say they were as few as
sixteen. The principal of them are mentioned under their respective
names, as Amphitrite, Doris, Metis, etc.

=Oceanus= (Oceʹanus), son of Coelus and Terra, and husband of Tethys.
Several mythological rivers were called his sons, as Alpheus, Peneus,
etc., and his daughters were called the Oceanides. Some of the
ancients worshiped him as the god of the seas, and invariably invoked
his aid when they were about to start on a voyage. He was also thought
to personify the immense stream which it was supposed surrounded the
earth, and into which the sun and moon and other heavenly bodies sank
every day.

=Ocridion= (Ocridʹion). A king of Rhodes, who was deified after his death.

=Ocypete= (Ocyʹpete). One of the Harpies, who infected everything she touched. The word means swift of flight.

=Ocyroe= (Ocyʹroe). A daughter of Chiron, who had the gift of prophecy. She was metamorphosed into a mare.

=Oeagrus= (Oeʹagrus). King of Thrace, and father of Orpheus.

=Oedipus= (Oedʹipus). A son of Laius, King of Thebes, best known as
the solver of the famous enigma propounded by the Sphinx. In solving
the riddle Oedipus unwittingly killed his father, and, discovering the
fact, he destroyed his own eyesight, and wandered away from Thebes,
attended by his daughter Antigone. Oedipus is the subject of two
famous tragedies by Sophocles.

=Oenone= (Oenoʹne). Wife of Paris, a nymph of Mount Ida, who had the gift of prophecy.

=Ogygia= (Ogygʹia). An island, the abode of Calypso, in the Mediterranean Sea, on which Ulysses was shipwrecked. It was so beautiful in sylvan scenery that even Mercury (who dwelt on Olympus)
was charmed with the spot.

=Olenus= (Oleʹnus). A son of Vulcan, who married Lathaea, a woman who
thought herself more beautiful than the goddesses, and as a punishment
she and her husband were turned into stone statues.

=Olympius= (Olymʹpius). A name of Jupiter, from Olympia, where the god
had a splendid temple, which was considered to be one of the seven
wonders of the world.

=Olympus= (Olymʹpus) was the magnificent mountain on the coast of
Thessaly, 9,000 feet high, where the gods were supposed to reside.
There were several other smaller mountains of the same name.

=Olyras= (Olyʹras). A river near Thermopylae, which, it is said,
attempted to extinguish the funeral pile on which Hercules was
consumed.

=Omophagia= (Omophaʹgia). A Bacchanalian festival at which some
uncooked meats were served.

=Omphale= (Omʹphale). The Queen of Lydia, to whom Hercules was sold as
a bondsman for three years for the murder of Iphitus. Hercules fell in
love with her, and led an effeminate life in her society, wearing
female apparel, while Omphale wore the lion's skin.

=Onarus= (Onaʹrus). A priest of Bacchus, said to have married Ariadne
after she had been abandoned by Theseus.

=Onuva= (Onuʹva). The Venus of the ancient Gauls.

=Opalia= (Opaʹlia). Roman festivals in honor of Ops, held on 14th of the calends of January.

=Ops.= Mother of the gods, a daughter of Coelus and Terra. She was
known by the several names of Bona Dea, Rhea, Cybele, Magna Mater,
Proserpine, Tellus, and Thya; and occasionally she is spoken of as
Juno and Minerva. She personified labor, and is represented as a
comely matron, distributing gifts with her right hand, and holding in
her left hand a loaf of bread. Her festival was the 14th day of the
January calends.

=Oraea= (Oraeʹa). Certain sacrifices offered to the goddesses of the
seasons to invoke fair weather for the ripening of the fruits of the
earth.

=Orbona= (Orboʹna). Roman goddess of children, invoked by mothers when
they lost or were in danger of losing their offspring.

=Oreades= (Oʹreades) were mountain nymphs, attendants on Diana.

=Orgies.= Drunken revels. The riotous feasts of Bacchus were so
designated.

=Orion= (Oriʹon). A handsome hunter, of great stature, who was blinded
by Oenopion for a grievous wrong done to Merope, and was therefore
expelled from Chios. The sound of the Cyclops' hammers led him to the
abode of Vulcan, who gave him a guide. He then consulted an oracle,
and had his sight restored, as Longfellow says, by fixing

=Orithyia= (Oriʹthyʹia). A daughter of Erechtheus, whose lover,
Boreas, carried her off while she was wandering by the river Ilissus.
Her children were Zetus and Calais, two winged warriors who
accompanied the Argonauts.

=Orpheus= (Orʹpheus) was son of Apollo and the Muse Calliope. He was
married to Eurydice; but she was stung by a serpent, and died. Orpheus
went down to Hades to claim her, and played so sweetly with his lute
that Pluto allowed Eurydice to return to the earth with Orpheus, but
on condition that he did not look behind him until he had reached the
terrestrial regions. Orpheus, however, in his anxiety to see if she
were following him, looked round, and Eurydice disappeared from his
sight, instantly and forever.

=Ossa= (Osʹsa). One of the mountains of Thessaly (once the residence
of the centaurs) which the giants piled on the top of Mount Pelion to
enable them to ascend to heaven and attack the gods.
=Pactolus= (Pactoʹlus). The river in Lydia where Midas washed himself
by order of Bacchus, and the sands were turned to gold.

=Paean= (Paeʹan). A name given Apollo, from _paean_, the hymn which
was sung in his honor after he had killed the serpent Python. Paeans
were solemn songs, praying either for the averting of evil and for
rescue, or giving thanks for help vouchsafed.

 =Palaemon= (Palaeʹmon), or Melicerta, a sea-god, son of Athamas and
Ino.

=Pales= (Paʹles). The goddess of shepherds and sheepfolds and
protectress of flocks; her festivals were called by the Romans
Palilia.
   
=Palladium= (Pallaʹdium). A famous statue of the goddess Pallas
(Minerva). She is sitting with a spear in her right hand, and in her
left a distaff and spindle. Various accounts are given of the origin
of the statue. Some writers say that it fell from the skies. It was
supposed that the preservation of the statue would be the preservation
of Troy; and during the Trojan War the Greeks were greatly encouraged
when they became the possessors of it.

=Pallas= (Palʹlas), or Minerva. The name was given to Minerva when she
destroyed a famous giant named Pallas. The Greeks called their goddess
of wisdom Pallas Athene. See Minerva.

=Pan.= The Arcadian god of shepherds, huntsmen, and country folk, and
chief of the inferior deities, is usually considered to have been the
son of Mercury and Penelope. After his birth he was metamorphosed
into the mythical form in which we find him depicted, namely, a
horned, long-eared man, with the lower half of the body like a goat.
He is generally seen playing a pipe made of reeds of various lengths,
which he invented himself, and from which he could produce music which
charmed even the gods. These are the Pan-pipes, or _Syrinx_. Pan's
terrific appearance once so frightened the Gauls when they invaded
Greece that they ran away though no one pursued them; and the word
_panic_ is said to have been derived from this episode. The Fauns, who
greatly resembled Pan, were his attendants.

=Pandora= (Pandoʹra), according to Hesiod, was the first mortal
female. Vulcan made her of clay, and gave her life. Venus gave her
beauty; and the art of captivating was bestowed upon her by the
Graces. She was taught singing by Apollo, and Mercury taught her
oratory. Jupiter gave her a box, the famous "Pandora's Box," which she
was told to give to her husband, Epimetheus, brother of Prometheus. As
soon as he opened it there issued from it numberless diseases and
evils which were soon spread all over the world, and from that moment
they have afflicted the human race. It is said that Hope alone
remained in the box. Pandora means "the all-gifted."

=Pantheon= (Pantheʹon) (lit. "the all-divine place"). The temple of
all the gods, built by Agrippa at Rome, in the reign of Augustus (B.C.
27). It was 144 feet in diameter, and 144 feet high; and was built in
the Corinthian style of architecture, mostly of marble; while its
walls were covered with engraved brass and silver. Its magnificence
induced Pliny to give it rank among the wonders of the world.

=Paphia= (Paʹphia), a name of Venus.

=Parcae, The= (Parʹcae), were goddesses who presided over the destiny
of human beings. They were also called the Fates, and were three in
number, Atropos, Clotho, and Lachesis. See Fates.

=Paris= (Parʹis), the son of Priam, king of Troy, and of his mother
Hecuba. It had been predicted that he would be the cause of the
destruction of Troy, and his father therefore ordered him to be
strangled as soon as he was born; but the slave who had been entrusted
with this mission took the child to Mount Ida, and left it there. Some
shepherds, however, found the infant and took care of him. He lived
among them till he had grown to man's estate, and he then married
Oenone, a nymph of Ida. At the famous nuptial feast of Peleus and
Thetis, Discordia, who had not been invited, attended secretly; and
when all were assembled, she threw among the goddesses a golden apple,
on which was inscribed "Let the fairest take it." This occasioned a
great contention, for each thought herself the fairest. Ultimately,
the contestants were reduced to three, Juno, Pallas (Minerva), and
Venus; but Jove himself could not make these three agree, and it was
decided that Paris should be the umpire. He was sent for, and each of
the goddesses courted his favor by offering all sorts of bribes. Juno
offered him power, Pallas wisdom, and Venus promised him the most
beautiful woman in the world. Paris gave the golden apple to Venus.
Soon after this episode Priam owned Paris as his son, and sent him to
Greece to fetch Helen, who was renowned as being the most beautiful
woman in the world. She was the wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta; but
during his absence Paris carried Helen away to Troy, and this gave
rise to the celebrated war between the Greeks and the Trojans, which
ended in the destruction of Troy. Paris was among the 676,000 Trojans
who fell during or after the siege.

=Parnassides= (Parnasʹsides), a name common to the Muses, from Mount
Parnassus.

=Parnassus= (Parnasʹsus). The mountain of the Muses in Phocis, and
sacred to Apollo and Bacchus. Any one who slept on this mountain
became a poet. It was named after one of the sons of Bacchus.

=Parthenon= (Parʹthenon). The temple of Minerva (or Pallas) on the
Acropolis at Athens. It was destroyed by the Persians, and rebuilt by
Pericles.

=Parthenos= (Parʹthenos) was a name of Juno, and also of Minerva. See
Pallas.

=Pasiphae= (Pasiphʹae) was the reputed mother of the Minotaur killed
by Theseus. She was said to be the daughter of Sol and Perseis, and
her husband was Minos, king of Crete.

=Pasithea= (Pasithʹea). Sometimes there are _four_ Graces spoken of;
when this is so, the name of the fourth is Pasithea. Also called
Aglaia.

=Pegasus= (Pegʹasus). The famous winged horse which was said to have
sprung from the blood of Medusa when her head was cut off by Perseus.
His abode was on Mount Helicon, where, by striking the ground with his
hoof, he caused water to spring forth, which formed the fountain
afterward called Hippocrene.

=Peleus= (Peʹleus). A king of Thessaly, who married Thetis, one of the
Nereides. It is said that he was the only mortal who married an
immortal.

=Pelias= (Peʹlias). A son of Neptune and Tyro. He usurped the throne
of Cretheus, which Jason was persuaded to relinquish and take the
command of the Argonautic expedition. On the return of Jason, Medea,
the sorceress, undertook to restore Pelias to youth, but required that
the body should first be cut up and put in a caldron of boiling water.
When this had been done, Medea refused to fulfil her promise. Pelias
had four daughters, who were called the Peliades.

=Pelias= (Peʹlias) was the name of the spear of Achilles, which was so
large that none could wield it but the hero himself.

=Pelion= (Peʹlion). A well-wooded mountain, famous for the wars
between the giants and the gods, and as the abode of the Centaurs, who
were expelled by the Lapithae. See Ossa, a mount, which the giants
piled upon Pelion, to enable them to scale the heavens.

=Pelops= (Peʹlops), son of Tantalus, king of Phrygia. His father
killed him, and served him up to be eaten at a feast given to the
gods, who, when they found out what the father of Pelops had done,
restored the son to life, and he afterward became the husband of
Hippodamia.

=Penates= (Penaʹtes). Roman domestic gods. The hearth of the house was
their altar. See Lares.

=Persephone= (Persephʹone). The Greek name of Proserpine.

=Perseus= (Perʹseus) was a son of Jupiter and Danae, the daughter of
Acrisius. His first famous exploit was against the Gorgon, Medusa. He
was assisted in this enterprise by Pluto, who lent him a helmet which
would make him invisible. Pallas lent him her shield, and Mercury
supplied him with wings. He made a speedy conquest of the Gorgons, and
cut off Medusa's head, with which he flew through the air, and from
the blood sprang the winged horse Pegasus. As he flew along he saw
Andromeda chained to the rock, and a sea-monster ready to devour her.
He killed the monster, and married Andromeda. When he got back, he
showed the Gorgon's head to King Polydectes, and the monarch was
immediately turned into stone.

=Phaeton= (Phaʹeton). A son of Sol, or, according to many
mythologists, of Phoebus and Clymene. Anxious to display his skill in
horsemanship, he was allowed to drive the chariot of the sun for one
day. The horses soon found out the incapacity of the charioteer,
became unmanageable, and overturned the chariot. There was such great
fear of injury to heaven and earth, that Jove, to stop the
destruction, killed Phaeton with a thunderbolt.

=Phaon= (Phaʹon). A boatman of Mitylene, in Lesbos, who received from
Venus a box of ointment, with which, when he anointed himself, he grew
so beautiful that Sappho became enamored of him; but when the ointment
had all been used Phaon returned to his former condition, and Sappho,
in despair, drowned herself.

=Philoctetes= (Philoctʹetes) was son of Poeas, and one of the
companions of Jason on his Argonautic expedition. He was present at
the death of Hercules, and received from him the poisoned arrows which
had been dipped in the blood of Hydra. These arrows, an oracle
declared, were necessary to be used in the destruction of Troy, and
Philoctetes was persuaded by Ulysses to go and assist at the siege.
He appears to have used the weapons with great dexterity and with
wonderful effect, for Paris was among the heroes whom he killed. The
story of Philoctetes was dramatized by the Greek tragedians Aeschylus,
Euripides, and Sophocles.

=Philomela= (Philomeʹla) was a daughter of Pandion, king of Athens,
who was transformed into a nightingale. She was sister to Procne, who
married Tereus, King of Thrace. The latter having offered violence to
Philomela, her sister, Procne, came to her rescue, and to punish her
husband slew her son Itylus, and at a feast Philomela threw Itylus's
head on the banquet table.

=Phlegethon= (Phlegʹethon). A river of fire in the infernal regions.
It was the picture of desolation, for nothing could grow on its
parched and withered banks. Also called Pyriphlegethon.

=Phlegon= (Phleʹgon) (burning), one of the four chariot horses of Sol.

=Phlegyas= (Phleʹgyas). Son of Mars and father of Ixion and Coronis.
For his impiety in desecrating and plundering the temple of Apollo at
Delphi, he was sent to Hades, and there was made to sit with a huge
stone suspended over his head, ready to be dropped on him at any
moment.

=Phoebus= (Phoeʹbus). A name of Apollo, signifying light and life.

=Phorcus= (Phorʹcus), or =Porcys=. A son of Neptune, father of the
Gorgons. The same as Oceanus.

=Picumnus= (Picumʹnus). A rural divinity, who presided over the
manuring of lands, also called Sterentius.

=Picus= (Piʹcus). A son of Saturn, father of Faunus, was turned into a
woodpecker by Circe, whose love he had not requited.

=Pierides= (Pierʹides). A name of the Muses, derived from Pieria, a
fountain in Thessaly, near Mount Olympus, where they were supposed to
have been born. Also, the daughters of Pierus, a king of Macedonia,
who settled in Boeotia. They challenged the Muses to sing, and were
changed into magpies.

=Pietas= (Pieʹtas). The Roman goddess of domestic affection.

=Pilumnus= (Pilumʹnus). A rural divinity that presided over the corn
while it was being ground. At Rome he was hence called the god of
bakers.

=Pirithous= (Pirithʹous). A son of Ixion and great friend of Theseus,
king of Athens. The marriage of Pirithous and Hippodamia became famous
for the quarrel between the drunken Centaurs and the Lapithae, who,
with the help of Theseus, Pirithous, and Hercules, attacked and
overcame the Centaurs, many of whom were killed, and the remainder
took to flight.

=Pleiades, The= (Pleiʹades). Seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione.
Their names were Electra, Alcyone, Celaeno, Maia, Sterope, Taygete,
and Merope. They were made a constellation, but as there are only six
stars to be seen, the ancients believed that one of the sisters,
Merope, married a mortal, and was ashamed to show herself among her
sisters, who had all been married to gods.

=Pluto= (Pluʹto). King of the infernal regions. He was a son of Saturn
and Ops, and husband of Proserpine, daughter of Ceres. He is
sometimes referred to under the name Dis, and he personifies hell. His
principal attendant was the three-headed dog Cerberus, and about his
throne were the Eumenides, the Harpies, and the Furies.

=Plutus= (Pluʹtus), the god of riches, was son of Jasion or Iasius and
Ceres (Demeter), the goddess of corn. He is described as being blind
and lame; blind because he so often injudiciously bestows his riches,
and lame because fortunes come so slowly.

=Pluvius= (Pluʹvius). A name of Jupiter, because he had the rain in
his control.

=Podalirius= (Podalirʹius). A famous surgeon, a son of Aesculapius and
Epione. His skill in medicine made him very serviceable among the
soldiers in the Trojan war.

=Pollux= (Polʹlux). Twin brother of Castor. Their father was Jupiter
and their mother Leda. He and his brother form the constellation
Gemini. His Greek name was Polydeuces. Castor and Pollux are also
known under the name of Dioscuri, the presiding deities of public
games in Rome, Castor being the god of equestrian exercise, and Pollux
the god of boxing. See Aedepol.

=Polybotes= (Polyboʹtes). One of the giants who made war against
Jupiter. He was killed by Neptune.

=Polydectes= (Polydecʹtes) was turned into stone when Perseus showed
him Medusa's head. See Perseus.

=Polydeuces= (Polydeuʹces). The Greek name of Pollux.

=Polyhymnia= (Polyhymʹnia). Daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. One of
the Muses who presided over singing and rhetoric.

=Polyphemus= (Polypheʹmus), one of the most celebrated of the Cyclops,
a son of the nymph Thoosa and Neptune, or Poseidon, as the Greeks
called the god of the sea. He captured Ulysses and twelve of his
companions, and it is said that six of them were eaten. The remainder
escaped by the ingenuity of Ulysses, who destroyed Polyphemus's one
eye with a fire-brand.

=Polyxena= (Polyxʹena). Daughter of Hecuba and Priam, king of Troy. It
was by her treachery that Achilles was shot in the heel.

=Pomona= (Pomoʹna). The Roman goddess of fruit-trees and gardens.

=Portunus= (Portuʹnus) (Palaemon), son of Ino, was the Roman god of
harbors.

=Poseidon= (Poseiʹdon). The Greek name of Neptune, god of the sea.

=Priapus= (Priaʹpus), the guardian of gardens and god of natural
reproduction, was the son of Venus and Bacchus.

=Prisca= (Prisʹca). Another name of Vesta.

=Procris= (Proʹcris). Daughter of Erechtheus, king of Athens. See
Cephalus, her husband.

=Progne= (Progʹne), wife of Tereus. Commonly called Procne, whose
sister was Philomela. See Itys and Tereus.

=Prometheus= (Promeʹtheus), the son of Japetus and father of
Deucalion. He presumed to make clay men, and animate them with fire
which he had stolen from heaven. This so displeased Jupiter that he
sent him a box full of evils, which Prometheus refused; but his
brother Epimetheus, not so cautious, opened it, and the evils spread
over all the earth. Jupiter then punished Prometheus by commanding
Mercury to bind him to Mount Caucasus, where a vulture daily preyed
upon his liver, which grew in the night as much as it had been reduced
in the day, so that the punishment was a prolonged torture. Hercules
at last killed the vulture and set Prometheus free.

=Proserpine= (Proserʹpine). A daughter of Jupiter and Ceres. Pluto
carried her off to the infernal regions and made her his wife. She was
known by the names of "the Queen of Hell," Hecate, Juno Inferna, and
Libitina. She was called by the Greeks Persephone.

=Proteus= (Proʹteus). A marine deity, who could foretell events and
convert himself at will into all sorts of shapes. According to later
legends, Proteus was a son of Poseidon.

=Psyche= (Psyʹche). The wife of Cupid. The name is Greek, signifying
the soul or spirit.

=Pygmalion= (Pygmaʹlion). A famous sculptor who had resolved to remain
unmarried, but he made such a beautiful statue of a goddess that he
begged Venus to give it life. His request being granted, Pygmalion
married the animated statue.

=Pylades= (Pyʹlades). The son of Strophius, King of Phanote, and
husband of Electra; famous on account of his faithful friendship with
Orestes.

=Pylotis= (Pyloʹtis). A Greek name of Minerva.

=Pyracmon= (Pyrʹacmon), one of the chiefs of the Cyclopes.

=Pyramus and Thisbe= (Pyrʹamus and Thisʹbe). Two Babylonian lovers,
the children of hostile neighbors. See Shakespeare's burlesque of the
story of their loves, in "Midsummer Night's Dream."

=Pyrois= (Pyʹrois) (luminous). One of the four chariot horses of Sol,
the Sun.

=Pythia= (Pyʹthia). The priestess of Apollo at Delphi, who delivered
the answers of the oracle. Also the name of the Pythian games
celebrated in honor of Apollo's victory over the dragon Python.

=Python= (Pyʹthon). A famous serpent killed by Apollo, which haunted
the caves of Parnassus. See Septerion.

=Quadratus= (Quadraʹtus). A surname given to Mercury, because some of his statues were four-sided.

=Quadrifrons= (Quadʹrifrons). Janus was sometimes depicted with four faces instead of the usual two, and he was then called Janus Quadrifrons.

=Quies= (Quiʹes). The Roman goddess of rest; she had a temple just outside the Colline gate of Rome.

=Quietus= (Quieʹtus). One of the names of Pluto.

=Quirinus= (Quiriʹnus). A name given to Mars during wartime; Virgil refers to Jupiter under the same name.

=Rhadamanthus= (Rhadamanʹthus), a son of Jupiter and Europa, was the ruler of the Greeks in the Asiatic islands, and judge of the dead in the infernal regions.

=Rhamnusia= (Rhamnuʹsia). A name of Nemesis, from Rhamnus, a town in Attica, where she had a temple in which was her statue, made of one stone ten cubits high.

=Rhea= (Rheʹa). The Greek name of Cybele. She was a daughter of Uranus and Gaea, and was called Mother of the gods.

=Romulus= (Romʹulus). The traditional founder of Rome. He was a son of Mars and Ilia, and twin brother of Remus. The infants were thrown into the Tiber, but were miraculously saved and suckled by a she-wolf, till they were found by Faustulus, a shepherd, who brought them up. Remus was killed in a quarrel with his brother, and Romulus became the first King of Rome.

=Rumia Dea= (Rumiʹa Dea). The Roman goddess of babes in arms.

=Rumina= (Ruʹmina). Roman pastoral deities, who protected suckling
cattle.

=Runcina= (Runciʹna). The goddess of weeding or cleansing the ground.

=Sacrifices= were ceremonious offerings made to the gods. To every deity a distinct victim was allotted, and the greatest care was always taken in the selection of them. Anything in any way blemished was
considered as an insult to the god. At the time of the sacrifice the people were called together by heralds led by a procession of musicians. The priest, clothed in white, was crowned with a wreath
made of the leaves of the tree which was sacred to the particular god to whom the sacrifice was offered. The victim had its horns gilt, and was adorned with a chaplet similar to that of the priest, and was
decorated with bright-colored ribbons. The priest then said, "Who is here?" to which the spectators replied, "Many good people." "Begone all ye who are profane," said the priest; and he then began a prayer addressed to all the gods. The sacrifice was begun by putting corn, frankincense, flour, salt, cakes, and fruit on the head of the victim. This was called the Immolation. The priest then took a cup of wine, tasted it, and handed it to the bystanders to taste also; some of it was then poured between the horns of the victim, and a few of the saturated hairs were pulled off and put in the fire which was burning on the altar. Then, turning to the east, the priest drew with his knife a crooked line along the back of the beast from the head to the tail, and told the assistants to kill the animal. This was done
directly, and the entrails of the victim taken out and carefully examined by the Haruspices to find out what was prognosticated. The carcase was then divided, and the thighs, covered with fat, were put
in the fire, and the rest of the animal was cut up, cooked, and eaten. This feast was celebrated with dancing, music, and hymns, in praise of the god in whose honor the sacrifice was made. On great occasions as many as a hundred bullocks were offered at one time; and it is said that Pythagoras made this offering when he found out the demonstration of the forty-seventh proposition of the book of Euclid.

=Salamanders= (Salʹamanʹders). The genii who, according to Plato, lived in fire.

=Salatia= (Salaʹtia), or Salacia, a Roman goddess of the salt water. See Amphitrite.

=Salii= (Salʹii). The priests of Mars who had charge of the sacred shields.

=Salmoneus= (Salmoʹneus). A king of Elis who, for trying to imitate Jupiter's thunders, was sent by the god straight to the infernal regions.

=Salus= (Saʹlus). The Roman goddess of health.

=Sappho= (Sapʹpho), a celebrated poetess, a native of Lesbos, who flourished in the seventh century B.C. Her only connection with the goddesses of the time is that the Greeks called her "The tenth Muse."

=Sarpedon= (Sarpeʹdon), son of Jupiter by Europa. He accompanied Glaucus, when the latter set out to assist Priam against the Greeks in the Trojan War. He was slain by Patroclus.

=Saturn= (Satʹurn), king of the Universe, was father of Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto. These gods quarreled amongst themselves as to the division of their father's kingdom, which ended in Jupiter having
heaven and earth, Neptune the sea, and Pluto the infernal regions.

=Saturnalia= (Saturnaʹlia). Festivals held in honor of Saturn about the 16th or 18th of December. Principally famous for the riotous disorder which generally attended them.

=Saturnius= (Saturʹnius). A name given to Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, as sons of Saturn.

=Satyrs= (Satʹyrs). Spirits of the woodland, half men, half goats, and fond of wine and women. They were the attendants of Dionysus, and were similar in most respects to the fauns who attended Pan. See Silenus.

=Scylla= (Scylʹla). A beautiful nymph who excited the jealousy of Neptune's wife, Amphitrite, and was changed by the goddess into a frightful sea-monster, which had six fearfully ugly heads and necks,
and which, rising unexpectedly from the deep, used to take off as many as six sailors from a vessel, and carry them to the bottom of the sea. An alternative danger with the whirlpool, Charybdis, which
threatened destruction to all mariners.

=Scylla= (Scylʹla). A daughter of Nysus, who was changed into a lark for cutting off a charmed lock of her father's hair. See Nysus.

=Segetia= (Segeʹtia). A rural divinity who protected corn during harvest-time.

=Semele= (Semʹele), daughter of Cadmus and the mother of Bacchus (Dionysus), who was born in a miraculous manner after Jupiter had visited her, at her special request, in all his terrible splendor. She
was deified after her death, and named Thyone.

=Semi-Dei= were the demi-gods.

=Semones= (Semoʹnes). Roman gods of a class between the "immortal" and the "mortal," such as the Satyrs and Fauns.

=Septerion= (Septeʹrion). A festival held every nine years at Delphi in honor of Apollo, at which the victory of that god over the Python was grandly represented.

=Serpent.= The Greeks and Romans considered the serpent as symbolical of guardian spirits, and as such were often engraved on their altars. See Aesculapius, Apollo, Chimaera, Eurydice, and Medusa.
=Silenus= (Sileʹnus). A Bacchanalian demi-god, the chief of the Satyrs. He is generally represented as a fat, drunken old man, riding on an ass, and crowned with flowers.

=Sirens, The= (Siʹrens). Sea nymphs, who by their music allured mariners to destruction. To avoid the snare when nearing their abode, Ulysses had the ears of his companions stopped with wax, and had
himself tied to the mast of his ship. They thus sailed past in safety; but the Sirens, thinking that their charms had lost their powers, drowned themselves.

=Sisyphus= (Sisʹyphus), son of Aeolus and Enaretta. He was condemned to roll a stone to the top of a hill in the infernal regions, and as it rolled down again when he reached the summit, his punishment was
perpetual.

=Sol.= The sun. The worship of the god Sol is the oldest on record, and though he is sometimes referred to as being the same as the god Apollo, there is no doubt he was worshiped by the Egyptians, Persians,
and other nations long before the Apollo of the Greeks was heard of. See Surya.

=Somnus= (Somʹnus). The Roman god of sleep, son of Erebus and Nox (Night). He was one of the infernal deities, and resided in a gloomy cave, void of light and air.

=Sospita= (Sosʹpita). A name of Juno, as the safeguard of women. She is called the "saving goddess."

=Soter= (Soʹter). A Greek name of Jupiter, meaning Savior or deliverer.

=Sphinx, The.= A monster having the head and breast of a woman, the body of a dog, the tail of a serpent, the wings of a bird, the paws of a lion, and a human voice. She lived in the country near Thebes, and proposed to every passer-by the following enigma: "What animal is that which walks on four legs in the morning, two at noon, and three in the evening." Oedipus solved the riddle thus: Man is the animal; for, when an infant he crawls on his hands and feet, in the noontide of life he walks erect, and as the evening of his existence sets in, he supports himself with a stick. When the Sphinx found her riddle solved she destroyed herself.

=Sterentius= (Sterenʹtius). The Roman god who invented the art of manuring lands. See also Picumnus.

=Stymphalides= (Stymʹphaliʹdes). The carnivorous birds destroyed in the sixth labor of Hercules.

=Styx.= A noted river of hell, which was held in such high esteem by the gods that they always swore "By the Styx," and such an oath was never violated. The river has to be crossed in passing to the regions
of the dead. See Achilles and Thetis.

=Sylphs.= Genii who, according to Plato, lived in the air.

=Sylvester= (Sylvesʹter). The name of Mars when he was invoked to protect cultivated land from the ravages of war.

=Syrinx.= The name of the nymph who, to escape from the importunities of Pan, was by Diana changed into reeds, out of which he made his celebrated pipes, and named them "The Syrinx."


=Tacita= (Tacʹita). The goddess of Silence. See Harpocrates, also Horus.

=Tantalus= (Tanʹtalus). Father of Niobe and Pelops, who, as a punishment for serving up his son Pelops as meat at a feast given to the gods, was placed in a pool of water in the infernal regions; but
the waters receded from him whenever he attempted to quench his burning thirst. Hence the word "tantalizing".

=Tartarus= (Tarʹtarus). An inner region of hell, to which the gods sent the exceptionally depraved.

=Telchines= (Telchiʹnes). People of Rhodes, who were envious sorcerers and magicians.

=Tellus= (Telʹlus). A name of Cybele, wife of Saturn, and the Roman deity of mother-earth.

=Temple.= An edifice erected to the honor of a god or goddess in which the sacrifices were offered.

=Tenth Muse.= Sappho was so called.

=Tereus= (Terʹeus) was a son of Mars. He married Procne, daughter of the king of Athens, but became enamored of her sister Philomela, who, however, resented his attentions, which so enraged him that he cut out her tongue. When Procne heard of her husband's unfaithfulness she took a terrible revenge (see Itys). Procne was turned into a swallow, Philomela into a nightingale, Itys into a pheasant, and Tereus into a hoopoe, a kind of vulture, some say an owl.

=Tergemina= (Tergemiʹna). A name of Diana, alluding to her triform divinity as goddess of heaven, earth, and hell.

=Terminus= (Terʹminus). The Roman god of boundaries.

=Terpsichore= (Terpsichʹore). One of the nine Muses; she presided over dancing.

=Terra.= The Earth; one of the most ancient of the Grecian goddesses.

=Thalestris= (Thalesʹtris). A queen of the Amazons.

=Thalia= (Thaliʹa). One of the nine Muses; she presided over festivals, pastoral poetry and comedy.

=Thalia= (Thaliʹa). One of the Graces.

=Thamyris= (Thamʹyris). A skilful singer, who presumed to challenge the Muses to sing, upon condition that if he did not sing best they might inflict any penalty they pleased. He was, of course, defeated,
and the Muses made him blind.

=Theia= (Theʹia) or =Thea=. A daughter of Uranus and Terra, wife of Hyperion.

=Themis= (Theʹmis), a daughter of Coelus and Terra, and wife of Jupiter, was the Roman goddess of laws, ceremonies, and oracles.

=Theseus= (Theʹseus). One of the most famous of the Greek heroes. He was a son of Aegeus, king of Athens. He rid Attica of Procrustes and other evil-doers, slew the Minotaur, conquered the Amazons and married their Queen.

=Thesmorphonis= (Thesmorphoʹnis). A name of Ceres.

=Thetis= (Theʹtis). A sea-goddess, daughter of Nereus and Doris. Her husband was Peleus, king of Thessaly, and she was the mother of the famous Achilles, whom she rendered all but invulnerable by dipping him into the River Styx. See Achilles.

=Thya= (Thyʹa), a name of Ops.

=Thyades= (Thyaʹdes). Priestesses of Bacchus, who ran wild in the hills, wearing tiger-skins and carrying torches.

=Thyrsus= (Thyrʹsus), a kind of javelin or staff carried by Dionysus and his attendants. It was usually wreathed with ivy and topped by a pine-cone. See Bacchus.

=Time= (or Saturn). The husband of Virtue and father of Truth.

=Tisiphone= (Tis-iphʹone). One of the Furies, daughter of Nox and Acheron, who was the minister of divine vengeance upon mankind.

=Titan= (Tiʹtan). Elder brother of Saturn, who made war against him, and was ultimately vanquished by Jupiter.

=Titans= (Tiʹtans) were the supporters of Titan in his war against Saturn and Jupiter. They were the sons of Uranus and Gaea, men of gigantic stature and of great strength. Hence our English word
_Titanic_.

=Tithonus= (Ti-thoʹnus). The husband of Aurora. At the request of his wife the gods granted him immortality, but she forgot at the same time to ask that he should be granted perpetual youth. The consequence was that Tithonus grew old and decrepit, while Aurora remained as fresh as
the morning. The gods, however, changed him into a grasshopper, which is supposed to moult as it gets old, and grows young again.

=Tityus= (Titʹyus). A son of Jupiter. A giant who was thrown into the innermost hell for insulting Diana. He, like Prometheus, has a vulture constantly feeding on his ever-growing liver, the liver being supposed
to be the seat of the passions.

=Tonitrualis= (Tonitruaʹlis), or Tonans. The Thunderer; a name of Jupiter.

=Triptolemus= (Triptolʹemus). A son of Oceanus and Terra. He was a great favorite of the goddess Ceres, who cured him of a dangerous illness when he was young, and afterwards taught him agriculture. She
gave him her chariot, which was drawn by dragons, in which he carried seed-corn to all the inhabitants of the earth, and communicated the knowledge given to him by Ceres. Cicero mentions a Triptolemus as the fourth judge of the dead.

=Triterica= (Triteriʹca). Bacchanalian festivals.

=Tritons= (Triʹtons) were sons of Triton, a son of Neptune and Amphitrite. They were the trumpeters of the sea-gods, and were depicted as a sort of mermen--the upper half of the body being like a
man, and the lower half like dolphins.

=Trivia= (Triʹvia). A surname given to Diana, because she presided over all places where three roads meet.

=Trophonius= (Trophoʹnius). A legendary hero of architecture, and one of Jupiter's most famous oracles.

=Troy.= The classic poets say that the walls of this famous city were built by the magic sound of Apollo's lyre. See Dardanus, Helen, Hercules, Paris.


=Truth.= A daughter of Time, because Truth is discovered in the course of Time. Democritus says that Truth lies hidden at the bottom of a well.

=Tutelina= (Tutelʹina). A rural divinity--the goddess of granaries.

=Typhon= (Tyʹphon). A monster with a hundred heads who made war against the gods, but was crushed by Jove's thunderbolts, and imprisoned under Mount Etna.

=Ulysses= (Ulysʹses). A noted king of Ithaca, whose exploits in connection with the Trojan war, and his adventures on his return therefrom, are the subject of Homer's Odyssey. His wife's name was
Penelope, and he was so much endeared to her that he feigned madness to get himself excused from going to the Trojan war; but this artifice was discovered, and he was compelled to go. He was of great help to the Grecians, and forced Achilles from his retreat, and obtained the charmed arrows of Hercules from Philoctetes, and used them against the Trojans. He enabled Paris to shoot one of them at the heel of Achilles, and so kill that charmed warrior. During his wanderings on his homeward voyage he was taken prisoner by the Cyclopes and escaped, after blinding Polyphemus, their chief. At Aeolia he obtained all the winds of heaven, and put them in a bag; but his companions, thinking that the bags contained treasure which they could rob him of when they got to Ithaca, cut the bags, and let out the winds, and the ships were immediately blown back to Aeolia. After Circe had turned his
companions into swine on an island where he and they were shipwrecked, he compelled the goddess to restore them to their human shape again. As he passed the islands of the Sirens he escaped their allurements by stopping the ears of his companions with wax, and fastening himself to the mast of his ship. His wife Penelope was a pattern of constancy; for, though Ulysses was reported to be dead, she would not marry any one else, and had the satisfaction of finding her husband return after
an absence of about twenty years. The Greek name of Ulysses is Odysseus.

=Undine= (Unʹdine). A water-nymph, or sylph, who, according to fable, might receive a human soul by marrying a mortal.

=Unknown God, An.= With reference to this God, nothing can be more appropriate than St. Paul's address to the Athenians, as recorded in the 17th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles:

=Unxia= (Unxʹia). A name of Juno, relating to her protection of newly married people.

=Urania= (Uraʹnia). A daughter of Jupiter and Mnemosyne--one of the Muses who presided over astronomy.

=Uranus= (Uraʹnus), literally, heaven. Son and husband of Gaea, the Earth, and father of Chronos (Time) and the Titans. The Greek name of Coelus; his descendants are sometimes called Uranides.

=Urgus= (Urʹgus). A name of Pluto, signifying the Impeller.

=Vallonia= (Valloʹnia). The goddess of valleys.

=Vedius= (Veʹdius). The same as Vejovis.

=Vejovis= (Vejoʹvis). "Little Jupiter"--a name given to Jupiter when he appeared without his thunder.

=Venus= (Veʹnus). The goddess of beauty, and mother of love. She is said to have sprung from the foam of the sea, and was immediately carried to the abode of the gods on Olympus, where they were all
charmed with her extreme beauty. Vulcan married her, but she permitted the attentions of others of the gods, and notably of Mars, their offspring being Hermione, Cupid, and Anteros. After this she left
Olympus and fell in love with Adonis, a beautiful youth, who was killed when hunting a wild boar. Venus indirectly caused the Trojan War, for, when the goddess of discord had thrown among the goddesses
the golden apple inscribed "To the fairest," Paris adjudged the apple to Venus, and she inspired him with love for Helen, wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta. Paris carried off Helen to Troy, and the Greeks
pursued and besieged the city (see Helen, Paris, and Troy). Venus is mentioned by the classic poets under the names of Aphrodite, Cypria, Urania, Astarte, Paphia, Cythera, and the laughter-loving goddess. Her favorite residence was at Cyprus. Incense alone was usually offered on her altars, but if there was a victim it was a white goat. Her attendants were Cupids and the Graces.

=Verticordia= (Vertiʹcorʹdia). A Roman name of Venus, signifying the power of love to change the hard-hearted. The corresponding Greek name was Epistrophia.

=Vertumnus= (Vertumʹnus) ("the Turner," "Changer"). God of spring, or, as some mythologists say, of the seasons; the husband of Pomona, the goddess of fruits and orchards.

=Vesta= (Vesʹta), daughter of Saturn and Cybele, was the goddess of the hearth and its fire. She had under her special care and protection a famous statue of Minerva, before which the Vestal Virgins kept a
fire or lamp constantly burning.

=Vestal Virgins= (Vesʹtal Virʹgins) were the priestesses of Vesta, whose chief duty was to see that the sacred fire in the temple of Vesta was not extinguished. They were always selected from the best
families, and were under a solemn vow of chastity, and compelled to live perfectly pure lives.

=Vialis= (Viaʹlis). A name of Mercury, because he presided over the making of roads.

=Victory= (Vicʹtory). A goddess, the daughter of Styx and Acheron, generally represented as flying in the air holding out a wreath of laurel. Her Greek name is Nike (_Nicē_). See Nicephorus.

=Virtue.= A goddess worshiped by most of the ancients under various names. The way to the temple of honor was through the temple of virtue.

=Vulcan= (Vulʹcan), the god of fire, was the son of Jupiter and Juno. He offended Jupiter, and was by him thrown out of heaven; he was nine days falling, and at last dropped into Lemnos with such violence that
he broke his leg, and was lame forever after. Vulcan was married to Venus. He is supposed to have formed Pandora out of clay. His servants were the Cyclopes. He was the patron deity of blacksmiths, and as the smelter or softener of metal bears also the name of Mulciber.

=Vulcanalia= (Vulcān-alʹia) were Roman festivals in honor of Vulcan, at which the victims (certain fish and animals) were thrown into the fire and burned to death.

=Xanthus= (Xanʹthus), the name of the wonderful horse of Achilles.

=Zephyr= (Zephʹyr) or =Zephyrus= (Zephʹyrus). The west wind and god of flowers, a son of Astraeus and Aurora (Eos). See Favonius.


=Zetes= (Zeʹtes), with his brother Calais, drove the Harpies from Thrace.

=Zethus= (Zeʹthus), twin brother of Amphion. He was the son of Antiope and Zeus. See Amphion.

=Zeus= (Zūs). The Greek name of Jupiter, the greatest god in Grecian mythology. He was the god of the sky and its phenomena, and as such was worshiped on the highest mountains, on which he was
enthroned. From Zeus come all changes in the sky or the winds; he is the gatherer of the clouds which dispense fertilizing rain; and is also the thunderer and hurler of lightning.